Mega-FAQ

Welcome to the Command: Modern Air / Naval Operations Mega-FAQ. This is a collection of common question and answers from the various Command forums and the beta group. No credits have been given below as multiple questions and answers have been merged into one, so naming each contributor would be difficult if not impossible. We’d like to use the opportunity to thank everyone (whose forums posts, private messages and mails we have shamelessly copied) once again for their contributions to the FAQ and to Command’s continuing success.

Table of Contents

General

What is ‘Command: Modern Air / Naval Operations’?
Do I need to be a military analyst to play Command? Will it suit regular Joes like me?
Where can I obtain a copy?
Do I need an internet connection to activate or play?
Is Command a replacement for Larry Bond’s Harpoon-series of naval wargames?
Is there a demo available?
What are the system requirements?
Does the simulator run on Mac?
What is the game performance like?
Will the simulator scale correctly on triple monitors, 3072×768 resolution?
Are there any known incompatibilities?
Is there a printed manual included with the boxed set?
Does the simulator have multiplayer?
How does the simulator compare to earlier games like Dangerous Waters and the like?
Are WW2 scenarios possible, like Battle of Midway?

Getting Started

I’m downloading the simulator but my connection is unstable. What should I do?
I have installed the game but it will not start. What is wrong?
How can I upgrade to the latest official version of the simulator?
Where can I download more scenarios to play?
Where can I download images and text descriptions for the Database Viewer?
Where can I find playing tips & misc. support?
Where can I find Video Tutorials?
Oops… I think I’ve found a bug. How can I report it?
Bah… The simulator crashed. And I haven’t saved the scenario. What happens now?
Is there anything else I should know?
Are there any small and simple scenarios you can recommend to beginners?
Can you recommend books for information on platforms, weapons and tactics?

Steam

The Unit Status panel gets corrupted when I mouse over it. Why?

Configuration

How can I make Command run faster?
How can I change altitude from metric to imperial/USM (feet)?
What is the difference between ‘pulse’ and ‘no-pulse’ time compression?

User Interface

What kind of maps does the simulator use?
How do I edit a plotted course?
How can I specify throttle and altitude settings for individual waypoints?
How can I specify EMCON settings for individual waypoints?
The rightmost Unit Status menu is truncated. How can I resolve that?
The message log window is gone, how can I get it back?
Why are most windows lacking OK and Cancel buttons?
Is there a way to make the tactical map stick to a unit?
How can I make mouse scroll zoom in at the cursor location, rather than at centre of screen?
I get too many / not enough messages about what’s happening. Can I change this?
Can I have the time compression revert to 1:1 under certain conditions?
Is there a “ruler and compass” tool so you can know distances and headings?
Is there a way to know cloud height/base and does the weather engine consider it?
Why is the Radar Illuminator text in red in the Emissions list?
Can I manually designate contacts as Hostile? Neutral? Friendly?
I have dual monitors. How can I move the message log to a separate monitor?
What does the ‘Reload Priority’ button in the Weapons window do?
What does this mean: Weapon (40mm/70 Single Breda Burst [4 rnds]) airbursted off K 21 by 103m?
How can I make my own custom map overlays?
How can I sort the scenario list by date, by difficulty, or complexity?

Gameplay tricks and tips

How do I select which side to play in a scenario?
Where can I find the hotkeys list?
Are there any instructions to go along with the tutorial scenarios?
How do I select multiple units on the map?
How can I set ‘weapons tight’ (Hold Fire)?
How do I control the amount of ordnance to shoot at a target?
How can I disband a group?
How can I select specific sensors on specific unit in a group?
Plotting a course for a unit that is ‘Engaged Offensive’ doesn’t work. Can I override this behaviour?
What is the difference between postures Unfriendly and Hostile?
How do I deploy troops from ships and aircraft?
How can I make units on support or patrol missions only use active sensors inside the station area?
How does one deploy Mk55 Naval mines from B52 bombers?
How can I order Check Fire?
What are Illumination Vectors (broken red line) and Targeting Vectors (broken green line)?
Why do enemy radars still have their “range ring” when they are no longer active?
How can I make my units maneuver, unmask weapons and engage instead of automatically run and evade?
Is there a way to simulate Search and Rescue (SAR)?
When I drop a contact, it comes back a second later. Why?
Can I re-target datalinked weapons like Tactical Tomahawk?
What is the best way to employ the ITALD and TALD loadouts?
How do I fire naval Surface-to-Air Missiles (SAMs) against surface ships?
Can I assign ARMs to specific radars on a target?
WINCHESTER and SHOTGUN weapon state, BINGO and JOKER fuel state? What does it all mean?
Why are my land-based SSM not firing?
Can I manually fire chaff and flares?
What is the difference between a Patrol Area and a Prosecution Area?
How can I make an air intercept mission that launches when a contact enteres an area?

Platforms and Weapons

Why do the databases have multiple entries for the same platform?
Why no TASM (Tomahawk Anti-Ship Missile) after 1991?
Why are later S-3 Viking variants not carrying ASW weapons?
Why do many guns have such a low PoK against aerial targets?
Why do Aegis ships (and others) have empty Mk41 VLS cells in the database?
Why do not newer USN Arleigh Burke Flight IIA ships carry any Harpoon missiles?
Why do newer USN Arleigh Burke Flight IIA ships not carry any SM-2MR missiles by default?
Why do USN Arleigh Burke ships not carry any SM-3 missiles by default?
Why aren’t F-111s armed with AGM-65 Maverick missiles in the simulator?
Why is there no 10-AMRAAM loadout for the F/A-18 Hornet?
Why is there no 6-Phoenix loadout for the F-14 Tomcat?
What is so special about the ‘F-14A Tomcat [Crazy Bob]’ database entry?
Why is the AN/AWG-9 radar on the F-14 Tomcat limited to a 40 deg search arc?
My F-16C Falcon with the Sniper pod can ID targets at ranges up to 70nm. How is that possible?
Why won’t my fighter jets fly faster than 925kt (Mach 1.6)?
Why doesn’t the F-22A Raptor have a separate Afterburner throttle setting?
Why does the F-22A Raptor have a 480kt cruise speed like most 4th generation fighters?
The F-35A Lightning II supposedly has a Mach 0.9 cruise speed but in Command it is ‘only’ 480kts. Why?
Radar types: FCR, target indicator, weapon director, radar illuminator? What does it all mean?
Why does the Mk214 Sea Gnat Chaff have “surface ships” as valid target?
Why do torpedoes have such a short range?
What advantage does New Threat Update (NTU) ships have over pre-NTU ships?
The radar ’Rock Cake HF [PRV-10M] does not seem to be working. Why?

Air Operations

Why do most combat aircraft have a 40 000 feet (12192 m) ceiling?
What is the yellow “L0” or “L1” under aircraft symbols?
How can I get aircraft to egress from target on a plotted path instead of calling Winchester?
Is the grounding of aircraft simulated because of bad weather or night-time conditions?
How can I get ground units to illuminate targets for air-dropped Laser-Guided Bombs (LGBs)?
Is it possible to jettison drop tanks and ordnance on aircraft?
Is it possible to land one’s aircraft at an airbase or airport belonging to an allied side?
Is it possible to drop ordnance at a given location irrespective of any enemy units being there?
What is the deal with the “Maintenance (Unavailable)” loadout?
What is the difference between ‘Reserve’ and ‘Unavailable’ loadouts?
Is there a way to activate aircraft set to Maintenance (Unavailable)?
Why does it take 6 hours to prepare my strike aircraft for a sortie?
I do not want aircraft to be down for maintenance or use realistic ready times, how can that be done?
Can I manually move aircraft from hangar to flight deck on aircraft carriers?
Do UAVs behave differently from manned aircraft?
The loadout selection window has “time-of-day” and “weather” columns. Are these in use?
Can I reload my aircraft without air-to-air weapons in air-to-ground loadouts?
Why do my aircraft fly at 350kt on patrol, 480kt when Bingo and 520kt on manual RTB?
What is the best way to disable an airbase?

Submarine & Anti-Submarine Operations

My submarine’s batteries are drained. How do I recharge?
How do I deploy towed array sonar?
How are submarine communications handled?
How do I get helicopters (or aircraft) to search for submarines?
I’m trying to change the depth of my submarine but my orders are ignored. Why?
My ASW aircraft have localized a submarine target but are not dropping a torpedo on it until they’re virtually on top of it, even though the torp has several miles range. Why?

Simulator Mechanics

Command is missing a feature that I’d really like to see implemented. What can I do?
Are High Off-Boresight (HOB) Air-to-Air Missiles (AAMs) simulated?
Do anti-air missiles have their base hit probabilities adjusted for range?
How do aircraft bombsight types affect bombing accuracy?
How does the sim treat periscopes?
Can flying boats land on water?
Do you take Daylight Saving Time (DST) into account?
Is the cloud cover spread throughout the whole world evenly, or localized in areas?
A group of infantry platoons moves but they are travelling at a really slow speed, why?
Is water depth taken into account?
What is the communications model like?
Do you simulate COMINT and communications jamming?
What is the land warfare model like?
Do you model the midnight sun and the polar night to the north/south of the arctic circles?
What kinds of warhead types and explosives types are modelled?

Sensor Modelling

How are sensors modelled in the simulator?
Does the weather affect sensors?
Does weather affect underwater acoustics as well?
How detailed is your radar model?
How do your ESM / RWR sets work?
What is the electronic warfare (ECM) model like?
How does stealth work with F-117A Nighthawk, B-2A Spirit, and other stealth aircraft?
How do Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) radars work?
What are your visual and infrared (IR) models like?
Are snorkeling subs visible to radar?
What weapon guidance types are modelled in the simulator?
A SARH-guided missile flew to the target and hit, but the target was outside the radar’s search arc. Why?
How do you calculate horizon limitations?
How do you simulate Look-Down/Shoot-Down (LD/SD) limitations?
How do you model ‘looking through a straw’ limitations for long-range TCS?
What is a semi-active seeker?

Scenario Editing

How do you determine Complexity and Difficulty
What are the ‘Single Unit Airfields’ in the database, and how do I use them?
Is there an upper limit to the number of units I can have in a scenario?
Why should I include ‘unavailable’ aircraft in my scenario?
I selected a carrier group and added aircraft, and some were distributed to destroyers. Why?
Do I need to fill aviation magazines with drop tanks, sonobuoys and gun ammo?
How can I find out what a particular aircraft carrier type’s normal complement of aircraft is?
What about CVBG ship composition? Any good suggestions for that?
If I add sensor, mount, etc to a unit in a scenario, will those modifications survive a database update?
Is there a way show cities on the map?
How much aircraft ordnance should I put in a typical ammunition shelter?
Is there some sort of “standard” aircraft complements for different ships in the database?
How do I put pictures in the scenario summary or briefing?
How can I convert Google Earth Placemarks to Installation (INST) files in Command?
How can I fit a ship with future weapons loadout like LRASM?
Can I add laser guns to my futuristic Arleigh Burke?
How were Soviet Red Banner Naval Aviation naval bomber regiments organized?
How should I name aircraft?
How many sides can I create?

Database Editing

Does the simulator come with a database editor?
Where can I submit my request for a new platform (aircraft, ship, submarine, facility, weapon, etc)?
There is an error in the platforms database. What can I do about it?
Where are the Colonial Wars Database (CWDB) and the DB3000 Database?
Why was 1979 selected for the end of the Cold War Database rather than 1989?
I cannot find Charles de Gaulle carrier (of France) in the DB. Why?
How can I add images to the database and write platform descriptions?
How extensive is the nuclear weapons database?
What battleships are included in the database?

General


What is ‘Command: Modern Air / Naval Operations’?

Command: Modern Air / Naval Operations, also known as C:MA/NO or CMANO, is the most realistic and accurate air/naval warfare simulator available on the commercial marked. The simulator puts the player in charge of air and naval operations in a period stretching from post-WW2 all the way to the modern day and even the near future at tactical and operation level. Detailed information and screen shots can be found on the What is ‘Command: Modern Air / Naval Operations’ page.


Do I need to be a military analyst to play Command? Will it suit regular Joes like me?

Many Command players have military backgrounds but the simulator is also played by regular guys with a fascination for air and naval warfare. The developmental efforts have been on making the simulator easy to operate and we’ve released a number of tutorial scenarios that help players learn basic concepts of modern air and naval warfare as well as the GUI.

We’d like to point out that Command is not an arcade game with visually stunning explosions and all that. This simulator requires a significant investment of intellectual and temporal capital, and is not for everyone. It is a niche simulator. However, if you really want to understand modern air or naval warfare, this is your only choice as a simulation.


Where can I obtain a copy?

To purchase the simulator go to this page.


Do I need an internet connection to activate or play?

Command does not require an internet connection to activate or play. However, if you want to upgrade the simulator to the latest version (which is highly recommended) you will need an internet connection.


Is Command a replacement for Larry Bond’s Harpoon-series of naval war games?

Sometimes, old Harpoon players come over and expect Command to be Harpoon since the focus is similar. But Command is a scratch-built product that is not related with the Harpoon franchise. The simulator brings in many new features and ideas, has a far more realistic balance between air and naval operations, and allows for a whole new range of play styles from macro to micromanagement.


Is there a demo available?

There is no demo available at the moment, sorry! This is a publisher’s (Matrix Games) decision, not developer (WarfareSims).

Baloogan has a lot of Command tutorial videos called Command episodes. Check them out to get an idea of how the simulator works.


What are the system requirements?

The minimum requirements are as follows.

OS: Windows XP SP3 / Vista / 7 / 8
CPU: 1 GHz (Dual-core Pentium and above recommended)
RAM: 1 GB (2GB+ recommended)
Video/Graphics: DirectX 9.0c compatible video card with 16 MB RAM
Sound: Compatible sound card
Hard disk space: 10 GB Free
DVD-ROM: Yes, for boxed version
DirectX version: DirectX 9.0c (Suitable Direct-X version bundled with game)

The faster your computer is, the better. Generally, Command likes Intel processors better than AMD since Intel uses fewer but more powerful cores. The simulator is multi-threaded in that CPU-intensive operations are handed off to helper threads. But since the main game engine thread runs on a single core, processors with few-but-powerful cores have an advantage over many-but-less-powerful cores.

Command runs significantly faster on Windows 8.0 and 8.1. Speed improvements are typically 30-50%. If you’re running Win7 or WinXP (God forbid!) we recommend upgrading to the very latest windows version.

We also recommend installing Command on the fastest disk you can get your hands on. Preferably a SSD (Solid State Disk). This is especially important for database and map operations. Running on a slow HDD may significantly reduce performance on large scenarios.

You can also make Command run considerably faster by re-configuring Windows and turn off CPU-intensive features in the operating system. A quick guide on how to configure Windows 10 for optimum performance can be found here.


Does the simulator run on Mac?

Command does not run on any Mac operating systems, but you can use Parallels9 which is a virtual machine on Mac that runs Win7 pretty well. However it will not run the simulator as fast as a native Windows installation by dual boot. Parallels supports DX9 and DX10.


What is the game performance like?

Command is by far and away the most performant and most scalable simulator of its kind, particularly with the v1.11 upgrade. It can run scenarios with thousands of units in greatly accelerated time.



Command_CIC_Setup

CT142-1024-e1458962991340
Will the simulator scale correctly on triple monitors, 3072×768 resolution?

Yes, and even more. We would like to thank Robin J Lee for sending us a photo showing Command running on four monitors. This is 3 x ASUS 24″ 1920×1080 monitors driven as a single display surface using AMD Eyefinity, plus a fourth Planar 22″ 1920×1080 touch screen monitor below. All very ordinary off-the-shelf stuff. It was set up for flight simulators, but works well for Command too.


Are there any known incompatibilities?

Some motherboard utilities and screencasting programs (particularly those working with DirectX overlays) can interfere with Command’s execution and distort some of its data windows. See the Tech Support forum on Matrix Games for a detailed rundown of known issues.


Is there a printed manual included with the boxed set?

Yes. And if you want to print the manual yourself you can download a more printer-friendly (and some would argue, also eyes-friendly) version of the manual here.

The manual refers to the original version v1.00 of the game, and the updates released since have added a plethora of new features and improvements. To get up to speed on what’s new, see the manual addendum section on the WarfareSims site here.


Does the simulator have multiplayer?

Command does not currently support real-time multiplayer. WEGO-style multiplayer is under development.

Baloogan has developed a PBEM-style add-on called Joint Command which has become very popular with the user community. So if you’re interested in battling other players go ahead and download it. Joint Command is continuously being developed and supported and has proved a great success.


How does the simulator compare to earlier games like Dangerous Waters and the like?

Dangerous Waters, Sub Command etc. are more tactical, “push button” simulations so the actual actions of driving a platform are certainly more detailed (go to sonar station, see water fall display on sonar, turn wheel, open/close torpedo tubes etc. etc.). Command assumes that the AI crew handles many of the housekeeping tasks that are explicitly modeled in DW (for example, resolving the bearing ambiguity of passive sonar, performing TMA etc.) so you can focus on the tactical picture, much like in Microprose’s classic “Red Storm Rising”. Command’s scope is from that of a grand tactical/operational commander. So you manage forces and many of the tactical functions will be handled by the AI although you can take manual control and do things like plot courses, set speeds/depths and fire weapons if you want to. This higher-level modeling allows Command to scale to much greater theaters and unit numbers than what is practical in “study” sims. In terms of the physics, sensors & weapons simulation Command holds its own against such detailed sims with the probable exception of some sonar details (e.g. no explicit DEMON mode, no manual tweaking of sonobuoy depth etc.).


Are WW2 scenarios possible, like Battle of Midway?

Yes, with certain limitations. Many of the technologies developed or perfected during WW2 also saw use in the Cold War era, so Command has them. There are have depth charges, straight-running torps, mines, a wide variety of unguided munitions, etc.

Many of the platforms that served during WW2 are available in the Cold War Database (CWDB, 1946-1979) since they also operated post-war, and at the request of players we’ve even added some units that did not survive WW2 (e.g. Japanese fleet carriers). This has allowed players to recreate some historical & hypothetical battles of WW2, as well as, ermm… see for yourself.

On the other hand, some things that mattered a lot in WW1/2 but became increasingly irrelevant post-war are not yet modelled. Plunging shell fire easily comes to mind. Another is that the tactical AI (Artificial Intelligence) is unaware of “crossing the T”. Diesel subs are always assumed to have a snorkel, which was true only to a limited extend towards the end of the war. Plus some other things.

If these details don’t distract you much, you can have a lot of fun. On water splashes, take a look at this screenshot. This from a scenario depicting the “Battle of Chumonchin Chan” (a historical engagement during the Korean War), and shows HMS Jamaica amid a hail of water splashes as a result of being targeted by multiple North Korean coastal artillery batteries.

Getting Started


I’m downloading the simulator but my connection is unstable. What should I do?

There are a couple of downloader managers you can use. These protect what was downloaded if it is interrupted and resumes from where you left off. One of these is Free Download Manager.


I have installed the game but it will not start. What is wrong?

Try reinstalling the prerequisites. You can do that by going to the following folder on your computer: C:\Matrix Games\Command Modern Air Naval Operations\PreRequisites
Run the dotNetFx40_Full_x86_x64.exe.

Then go to the following folder C:\Matrix Games\Command Modern Air Naval Operations\PreRequisites\directx_mar2009_redist
Run the DXSetup.exe.

Finally, reboot the computer and run Command.

Still not working? Okay if you are running Windows 8.1N then you need to install Windows Media Player. Command dislikes the lack of Windows Media Player (WMP). You may also have to reinstall DX after WMP top get Command to function properly.

Still not working? Open the Command.ini file, located on the main Command folder (e.g. C:\Matrix Games\Command Modern Air Naval Operations). It’s a text file so you can open it with Notepad etc. Make sure the following preferences are set thus:

GameSounds = False
GameMusic = False

Then save and try to run it again.


How can I upgrade to the latest official version of the simulator?

There are two ways to Upgrade:

1) Use the updater from the game launcher applet:

2) If the updater does not work for any reason, or if you prefer to have the update files available offline, you can download them manually from the publisher’s Product Download Page

Update files are cumulative, so you only need to download the most recent version.

In addition to the official updates, the Command development team regularly releases “unofficial” updates. These are typically listed on the main forum, in a thread titled “Build XXX is available”. These releases offer the latest fixes, improvements, new functionality etc. and are fully supported by the development team. There is also an even more frequent series of internal beta releases but these are available only to the beta group. Very frequently the solution to an issue encountered in the official version is found in the unofficial public releases. For this reason we highly recommend to always use the latest publicly available “unofficial” update.

IMPORTANT NOTE: If you have problems updating the simulator using the updater from the game launcher applet, i.e. you get a Runtime Error, try downloading the Updater Fix and run the updater again.


Where can I download more scenarios to play?

Command has 42 scenarios included, but many more have been developed by the user community. To download them or browse through them, go to the Command Downloads Section. As of May 2016, there are more than 300 scenarios available for Command and the number is continuously increasing. Updates to the community scenario pack are announced on the WarfareSims main page and on the Publisher’s Forum.


Where can I get images and text descriptions for the simulator’s integrated Database Viewer?

In the Command Downloads Section you will find image & description packs for the database viewer. Downloading these means that when you look up for a platform’s technical data you also get images & text description for that platform if available. Updates to these packs are announced on the WarfareSims main page and on the Publisher’s Forum. The images and descriptions were deliberately not bundled with the game in order to avoid IP/copyright issues.


Where can I find playing tips & misc. support?

The publisher’s forum is probably the single best place for answering any questions you might have on playing the simulator. The developer and a community of myriads are ready to answer any sort of question and provide all the support you may need. You can also visit the developer’s forum. “No question is stupid, no call for help is lame” is our motto.

Baloogan has put together a fantastic website with tons of useful Command material, including:

Video Series
Chatroom
Online Database Viewer
Platform Type Index
Nation Index
Import Index

Spelk has written an Air Tutorial which seems popular with folks. It explains the process of creating form-up points and inactive empty missions, so that you can schedule waves onto the target. It should be noted the tutorial was created for Command 1.00 and many new features, adjustments and bug fixes have been made since then.

Air Tutorial Part 1
Air Tutorial Part 2


Where can I find Video Tutorials?

Other than hands-on experimentation, the best way to learn the game is probably to watch others playing it. The dev team has put together a series of video tutorials covering the basics:

Gameplay Demo
Basic Attack Tutorial
Basic Plotting and Mission Editor Tutorial
Event Editor Tutorial
Import Files Tutorial

Baloogan has put together a fantastic series of video playthroughs, covering everything from basic gameplay all the way to massive global-scale scenarios. Treat yourself to his video series.

On the same site you will find plenty of support material such as gameplay tips, an online database viewer, etc.


Is there a chatroom where I can meet other players, get help on gameplay, etc?

Baloogan runs a chatroom located here and should definitely be paid a visit.


Oops… I think I’ve found a bug. How can I report it?

You can submit reports on any problem/issue encountered on the Tech Support forum. But first we ask that you read the guidelines for submitting a bug report.


Bah… The simulator crashed. And I haven’t saved the scenario. What happens now?

Command automatically saves your scenario every 20 seconds. Restart Command and reload the autosave by clicking on “Resume from autosave” in the start menu.


Is there anything else I should know?

Share your war stories and gameplay tips with other players on the After Action Reports and the War Room pages.

Get a taste of new & upcoming scenarios on the Mods & Scenarios forum.

You will find the community a kind & friendly place to be, and members of the dev team are regularly present to solicit feedback from users, discuss future development and in general move the game forward.


Are there any small and simple scenarios you can recommend to beginners?

Stand Up, 2011 is often mentioned as a good starter scenario. Others are:
Wooden Leg, 1985 – Air
The Shark, 1971 – Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW)
Operation Trident, 1971 – Surface


Can you recommend books for information on platforms, weapons and tactics?

As far as the best all around modern naval tactics book, look at CAPT Wayne Hughes’ Fleet Tactics and Coastal Combat, 2nd ed (1999). Milan Vego’s Soviet Naval Tactics and Naval Strategy and Operations in Narrow Seas are also very good. Admiral Sandy Woodward’s One Hundred Days: The Memoirs of the Falkland Battle Group Commander, 2012 ed is an excellent case study of the operational level of modern naval warfare.

The classic techno thrillers by Clancy, Dale Brown, Larry Bond et al. might be good introduction. Red Storm Rising overall manages to explain modern naval and air tactics pretty well, especially the whole concept of EMCON.

Michael A. Palmer’s book The War That Never Was: A Novel is in many ways far better than Red Storm Rising. You should probably also read Barret Tillman’s The Sixth Battle. Salty as heck and the ultimate reading of a What-If between Russian and US CVs. Tillman is a former Chief Editor at Tailhook Magazine – this man knows naval aviation. Is not in print anymore but there are a lot of used books for a few dollars in Amazon.

I can also recommend Red Army by Ralph Peters. Describes a Warsaw Pact invasion of Western Germany, but from the Soviet perspective. Another great book from the Soviet POV, with discussions after each chapter, is Red Thrust by Steven Zaloga. .It’s completely tactical (at least the vignettes are) with some discussion of strategic concerns in the summaries after each chapter. Written in 1989, it’s obviously a little dated, but it’s impressive how much he managed to get right. Highly recommended if you can find it!

A few other books are:

The Naval Institute Guide to World Naval Weapon Systems, 5th Edition (2005) by Norman Friedman
Conway’s all the World Fighting Ships
The Naval Institute Press series of “US Battleships (or Aircraft Carriers, or Destroyers, or Submarines, or Small Combatants), an Illustrated Design History” by Norman Friedman
The Jane’s series of books
The Guide to the Soviet Navy by Norman Pomlar
Modern Submarine Warfare (Salamander Books, 1987)
Modern Naval Combat (Salamander Books, 1987) by D.M.O.and C. Miller
Beyond the General Belgrano and Sheffield: Lessons in Undersea and Surface Warfare from the Falkland Islands Conflict (1998) by Luke Swartz

A few websites are:

Principles of Naval Weapon Systems
Sierra Hotel – Flying Air Force Fighters in the Decade After Vietnam

And lastly, but hard to find, is the Harpoon II: The Official Strategy guide (1993) by Ed Dille and T. Basham.

Steam


The Unit Status panel gets corrupted when I mouse over it. Why?

This may happen when you have installed the simulator via Steam. It is not a Steam problem, however. You most likely have the AMD G.E Raptr Overlay enabled which causes issues with the Steam install. Disabling it works.

It may also happen if you have Nahimic installed. This is a small piece of software that runs in the background to improve sound. Disabling it works too.

Configuration


How can I make Command run faster?

Go to Game -> Game Options. Turn off the following two:

High-fidelity mode
No-pulse time mode

Turning off these will make the game run much smoother as the simulator makes far fewer calculations per second, running at 1 second resolution rather than 1/10 second resolution.

Next, turn off as many range rings as you can. This can be a bummer but you can manage if you leave most important range rings on (depending on your force) and show them for Selected Unit Only. The range rings will then only be shown for the currently highlighted unit.

Process Lasso , a free utility, has been noted by many users to provide a substantial speed improvement for Command.


How can I change altitude from metric to imperial/USM (feet)?

To view altitude and depth in feet rather than meters, to go Game -> Game Options, and check ‘Show Altitude in Feet’.


What is the difference between ‘pulse’ and ‘no-pulse’ time compression?

No-pulse time mode is the default setting. When using time acceleration (particularly at high values, e.g. 1:30 seconds or 1:1 minute) the map updates much more smoothly and the user experience is significantly improved. However this option requires a fast computer, and older computers may experience lags. When enabled the simulator will:

* Refresh the User Interface (UI) every 0.1 second rather than every 1 second.
* Execute each turn within the simulator core engine as fast as possible rather than in 1 second pulses. This eats up a good portion of the computer’s resources, but looks good visually.

Pulse mode is recommended for older computers that have problems running no-pulse mode. Or when you have a newer computer but want to spend the system resources on game speed than visual presentation (1 second screen updates rather than 0.1 sec screen updates). When enabled, the simulator will:

* Refresh the User Interface (UI) every second when time compression is used.
* Execute each turn in pulsing mode, emulating Harpoon’s presentation.

These setting can be toggled on/off via three ways:
a) From the main menu bar: Game -> Options -> No-pulse time mode.
b) Drop-down selector “Time Mode”, placed to the right of the existing “Time Compression” drop-down selector.
c) Keyboard shortcut: Ctrl+Q .

User Interface


What kind of maps does the simulator use?

Command’s built-in map layers include a global “Blue Marble NG” tileset and a custom relief layer derived from our terrain elevation data. Blue Marble NG has a resolution of ca 500m and is the tileset used as standard.

The elevation data come from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and has a base resolution of 3 arc-seconds (~900m/cell at the equator), thus allowing for unprecedented terrain detail benefiting air, naval and land operations alike. The elevation data is used by the navigator, weapon logics, sensors logics (line of sight, LOS), etc.

Due to the many errors in the 3rd party maps and elevation data we’ve made quite few manual corrections to the digital terrain in Command. Primarily in areas where scenarios have been built. We are well aware of the fact that many errors remain (the planet earth is pretty big at 500/900m resolution!) and if there are any map errors that affects a scenario you’re playing or building, let us know and we’ll see if we can fix it in the next update.


How do I edit a plotted course?

To create a new plotted course, press the F3 hotkey and click on the tactical map to place the waypoints. When you’re done press Esc or F3 key. Alternatively, double-click when placing the last waypoint to exit Path Plotting mode.

To move a waypoint, click and drag the waypoint with the mouse pointer.

To create a new waypoint, hold down the Ctrl key, click and drag an existing waypoint with the mouse pointer. The mouse pointer must move at least four pixels for a new waypoint to be created.

To delete a waypoint, click on it and press the Delete key.

To delete a whole plot select the unit and press F3 twice.

If you want to re-plot a course from a waypoint in the middle of an existing plot (say, starting at waypoint 3 out of 6), select the waypoint (#3) and press F3. All waypoints beyond the selected waypoint (#3) are deleted and you can plot a new course from this point onwards.


How can I specify throttle and altitude settings for individual waypoints?

Select the waypoint and press the F2 hotkey. Alternatively, right-click on the waypoint and select Throttle – Altitude/Depth.


How can I specify EMCON settings for individual waypoints?

Select the waypoint and press the F9 hotkey. Alternatively, right-click on the waypoint and select Sensors.


The rightmost Unit Status menu is truncated. How can I resolve that?

Set your desktop font size to 100% instead of 125% or 150%.


The message log window is gone, how can I get it back?

If you’ve selected to show the message log in a separate window it could be that you moved it somewhere awkward and exited the simulator. Next time the simulator is run it may not be able to be rendered from where you moved it. There is a ‘Reset positions of secondary windows’ button in the Options window to address this. Go to Game -> Game Options -> Reset position of secondary windows.


Why are most windows lacking OK and Cancel buttons?

If a window does not have the standard OK/Cancel buttons it means the orders/settings you are generating through it are applied immediately. Usually there is a sound technical reason for it. Some of the actions, when made in windows, cannot be cancelled, and thus are always OK.

All windows can be closed with the Escape (Esc) hot key. Windows that were opened with a function key (F1, F2…F11) can be closed using the same key.


Is there a way to make the tactical map stick to a unit?

To keep a unit centred on the tactical map, select the unit to track and press the T hotkey. Alternatively, go to Map Settings -> Track Selected Unit. To stop tracking the unit, press the T hotkey or the menu item again.


How can I make mouse scroll zoom in at the cursor location, rather than at centre of screen?

Go to Game -> Game Options -> General, and select ‘Map zooms on mouse cursor’.


I get too many / not enough messages about what’s happening. Can I change this?

You can configure which message types will appear by going to Game -> Game Options -> Messages. You can also configure which message types will cause a pop-up to appear, freezing the clock. This is very useful for new weapon contacts.


Can I have the time compression revert to 1:1 under certain conditions?

Go to Game Options -> Message Log and then select events you like to raise pop-up. Once you get the popup window, you can hit the keypad enter key which drops the time to 1:1 even while it is still on pause and the popup is still open. Then press Close + Resume. Alternatively, press Close which pauses the game.


Is there a “ruler and compass” tool so you can know distances and headings?

To activate the Range / Bearing Tool, press Ctrl + D or go to View -> Range / Bearing Tool. It is also available through the context (right-click) menu. The tool allows you to draw a temporary line between two points and displays the distance and bearing between those two points. To de-activate the Range / Bearing Tool, either double-click on the map, press Ctrl + D, or go to -> Range / Bearing Tool again.


Is there a way to know cloud height/base and does the weather engine consider it?

The mouse pointer ‘black tag’ gives information about the weather, including sea state, temperature, cloud cover and rain. The weather affects sensor effectiveness, and is configurable in the scenario editor.


Why is the Radar Illuminator text in red in the Emissions list?

Radar Illuminators are really dangerous radars. They are used with Semi Active Radar Homing (SARH) guided missiles. Most medium and long-range Air-to-Air Missiles (AAMs) and Surface-to-Air Missiles (SAM) use SARH guidance, where the missiles home in on radar energy reflected from the illuminated target. Once an illuminator goes active there is most likely a missile in the air


Can I manually designate contacts as Hostile? Neutral? Friendly?

Yes. Select the contact(s) and press the H key to mark as Hostile, N key to mark as Neutral and F key to mark as Friendly. Alternatively, go to ‘Contacts’ and select the desired option.


I have dual monitors. How can I move the message log to a separate monitor?

To have the message log in a separate window, go to Game -> Game Options, and tick ‘Message Log in Separate Window’. You can then move the message window to the second monitor.


What does the ‘Reload Priority’ button in the Weapons window do?

Reload priority instructs your crew to give priority in loading a specific weapon on a mount. This is not obvious on mounts of a single weapon type, but in multiple-type weapon launchers this can be very useful. You can, for example, direct the crew on one of your subs to always keep Mk48 torpedoes loaded on two of the torpedo tubes and Harpoon missiles loaded on the other two. Effectively you are overriding the built-in crew AI routines for determining which weapon to load on a given mount. The AI routines are quite sophisticated, but the player may have ideas of his own.


What does this mean: Weapon (40mm/70 Single Breda Burst [4 rnds]) airbursted off K 21 by 103m?

That’s a burst (4 shells fired at once in a salvo) from a 40mm/70 Single Breda gun mount, exploding in flight (not on impact) 103m off a unit named K21, and it’s happening at 22:56:33.


How can I make my own custom map overlays?

There is a great introduction to custom map overlays here and here.


How can I sort the scenario list by date, by difficulty, or complexity?

At the top of the scenario box, you can have scenarios ordered alphabetically, by date, by difficulty, or complexity. Keep in mind that the difficulty and complexity settings are totally arbitrary.

Gameplay tricks and tips


How do I select which side to play in a scenario?

When you load a scenario you will first see a window with the briefing for the default side. On top of that window you will see a “Side:” label and a drop-down list with all the playable side for that scenario. Some scenarios can only be played from one side, while others can be played from two or more sides.


Where can I find the hotkeys list?

Go to Help -> Hotkeys.


Are there any instructions to go along with the tutorial scenarios?

Just start the scenario to get all the necessary pop-up instructions. You can also open the scenario side briefings by going to Game -> Side Briefing.


How do I select multiple units on the map?

You can click and drag for multiple targets, or use Shift + mouse click.


How can I set ‘weapons tight’ (Hold Fire)?

To set weapons tight for the selected unit(s), press the ‘A’ hotkey or go to Unit Status -> Attack Options -> Toggle Hold Fire for selected units (no AI attacks). You can also set weapons tight for all units on your side by pressing ‘Ctrl + A’ or go to Unit Status -> Attack Options -> Toggle Hold Fire for all units on current side (no AI attacks). These options are also available through the mouse context (right-click) menu.


How do I control the amount of ordnance to shoot at a target?

To manually allocate weapons, select the firing unit and press ‘Shift + F1’. Alternatively, go to Unit Status -> Attack Options -> Engage Target(s) – Manual. This option is also available through the mouse context (right-click) menu. The cursor has now become a cross. Select the target(s) you want to shoot at, and that brings up the Weapon Allocation window where you can assign weapons to targets.


How can I disband a group?

To disband a group, select the group in Group View and press the Delete button.

Alternatively, switch to Unit View, drag-select the units you want to disband, and press the ‘D’ (Detach) hotkey. To disband the whole group, select all units and press the ‘D’ hotkey.


How can I select specific sensors on specific unit in a group?

Switch to Unit View and select the individual unit. Then press the F9 hotkey to bring up the Sensor hotkey.


Plotting a course for a unit that is ‘Engaged Offensive’ doesn’t work. Can I override this behaviour?

To take control over a unit, press the ‘I’ hotkey or go to Unit Orders -> Attack Options and uncheck Ignore Plotted Course When Attacking – Selected Unit. Alternatively, right-click on the unit, select Attack Options, and uncheck Ignore Plotted Course When Attacking – Selected Unit. The unit will then revert to its plotted course.


What is the difference between postures Unfriendly and Hostile?

Unfriendly: manouver to intercept and localize/ID but do not engage unless the “Engage non-hostiles” doctrine option is activated, in which case all bets are off.

Hostile: manouver to intercept and engage if part of mission. Aircraft and missile contacts are always automatically engaged, mission type be damned.


How do I deploy troops from ships and aircraft?

They cannot be delivered as per Command v1.04, but you can use the Event Editor to model the delivery of SOF teams and the like.


How can I make units on support or patrol missions only use active sensors inside the station area?

There’s a check box in the mission editor for this.


How does one deploy Mk55 Naval mines from B52 bombers?

The easiest (and certainly least tedious!) way to mass-deploy mines is to assign the laying platform(s) to a mine-laying mission. We did a video on this a while ago, have a look here.

The more tedious but more “hands-on” way is to perform “BOL-launch” on every point where you want to lay a mine. This can work for a dozen or so but not really recommended if you want to lay hundreds or thousands.

You can also lay “prefabricated” minefields, for scenarios where the laying action itself is not important. This is described in detail here.


How can I order Check Fire?

To disengage all targets, select the attacking unit and press ‘Ctrl + E’. Alternatively go to Unit Orders -> Attack Options -> Disengage (Drop All Targets). This option is also available through the mouse context (right-click) menu.

If you want to drop a certain target before it has been destroyed (and has disappeared from the tactical map), select the attacking unit and press ‘E’. Alternatively go to Unit Orders -> Attack Options -> Drop Target(s). This option is also available through the mouse context (right-click) menu. Lastly select the target(s) to drop. To select multiple targets, hold down the Shift key when clicking.


What are Illumination Vectors (broken red line) and Targeting Vectors (broken green line)?

A targeting vector is telling you a unit has orders to engage a target, and is firing or preparing to fire. An illumination vector means the target is illuminated by some kind of sensor, i.e. a laser is used to illuminate a target for a laser-guided bomb (LGB).

To view targeting and illumination vectors, go to Map Settings -> Targeting Vectors – Show All or Selected Unit.


Why do enemy radars still have their “range ring” when they are no longer active?

The enemy radar range rings are an estimation. Your crews cannot know for sure if the radar has been knocked out. That it’s not radiating right now is an indication, but an unreliable one. Particularly against a competent IADS operator like the Soviets, Egyptians or Serbs.


How can I make my units maneuver, unmask weapons and engage instead of automatically run and evade?

If you don’t want your units to automatically go defensive you can disable this behaviour in the Doctrine / ROE window. Set Automatic Evasion to No.


Is there a way to simulate Search and Rescue (SAR)?

Not per Command v1.04. You can kind of achieve this by using the teleport action coupled with an area trigger in the event editor to model it but there is no true SAR in the simulator yet. We need to complete the amphibious model to really put this into action.


When I drop a contact, it comes back a second later. Why?

If the contact is a ground facility set to ‘auto detect’ it will be re-detected immediately.

Also, if your side is allied with another side that sees the contact, the contact will automatically be transferred to your side.


Can I re-target datalinked weapons like Tactical Tomahawk?

Yes. Select the weapon, press F1, and select the new target.


What is the best way to employ the ITALD and TALD loadouts?

The TALD and ITALD air-launched decoys are just extra targets for SAM and radar sites, so just fire them along with other ASMs or ahead of your strike aircraft. The hotkey to fire air-launched decoys is Ctrl + F1 (the same key is also used for BOL-attacks). The AI cannot use decoys as per Command v1.04.


How do I fire naval Surface-to-Air Missiles (SAMs) against surface ships?

Many ship-based SAMs with Semi-Active Radar Homing (SARH) have an anti-surface mode. To fire the weapon successfully you need to get closer till your ship can literally see the other ship to point your illuminators at it. And then you have to go into the doctrine window (Ctrl + F9) and turn the Use SAMs in anti-surface mode to Yes. That option restricts your ships from using SAM against other surface targets.


Can I assign ARMs to specific radars on a target?

You can’t in do this in Command v1.04 when targeting single units with multiple sensors, although we’d like to add this in the future. The simulator will automatically prioritize the detected radars and spread its ARM fire among those: weapon illuminators first, then fire control radars, and lastly target indicator radars and air-search radars. Surface search radars, navigation radars, etc, are ignored.


WINCHESTER and SHOTGUN weapon state, BINGO and JOKER fuel state? What does it all mean?

The WINCHESTER and SHOTGUN states are paired much like BINGO and JOKER.

BINGO is a multiservice tactical brevity code for a low fuel state, i.e. the fuel to return to base plus reserves. Reserves are typically 5% of original fuel plus 20 minutes loiter at sea level.

JOKER is the pre-briefed fuel state at which separation/bugout/event termination should begin. JOKER is reached before BINGO.

WINCHESTER means that no ordnance is remaining, i.e. the aircraft is down to the gun or harsh language.

SHOTGUN is the pre-briefed weapons state at which separation should begin.

For more information, please see the Multiservice tactical brevity code article on Wikipedia.


Why are my land-based SSM not firing?

Units will only do what you explicitly tell them to, or allow them to. To get your SSM batteries to fire, you need to assign them to either an ASuW Strike or Patrol, a Sea Control Patrol, or change their Rules of Engagement (ROE) to allow them to “Engage Opportunity Targets”.

Also the AI won’t fire at unidentified targets, unless you set the ROE to allow them to, as stated above. You would either need to be sure the AI had confirmed the ships were hostile or set up an exclusion zone so that any ships within area “X” are legitimate targets.


Can I manually fire chaff and flares?

Defensive chaff clouds and flares are fired automatically. You can see their results in your logs. If you try the Battle of Latakia scenario from the 1973 Yom Kippur war you’ll see the older SS-N-2s are pretty useless against Israeli chaff and jammers.


What is the difference between a Patrol Area and a Prosecution Area?

A basic way of looking at the two types of area would be:

  • Patrol Area – the area your units move within.
  • Prosecution Area – the area in which targets are considered a threat and engaged. If someone enters a prosecution area, units will ignore the patrol area to engage it.

If a mission is set up without a Prosecution Area, the assinged units will only engage contacts that enter the Patrol Area. By enabling Prosecution Area you can have the CAP stay in the patrol area fairly close to the carrier but still rush for the unidentified contact entering the larger prosecution area, and also ignore contacts that are too far away to be of any threat.

Enabling ‘Investigate contacts outside the patrol area’ will make the assigned units run off and investigate any and all unidentified contacts on the map.


How can I make an air intercept mission that launches when a contact enteres an area?

You can make fighters scramble and intercept contacts entering a certain area the following way:

  • Set up Intercept Missions as desired but keep them deactivated.
  • Set up an exclusion zone where you want the intercept to happen.
  • Set up an event to activate the intercept missions when the enemy aircraft enters the exclusion zone.

Platforms and Weapons


Why do the databases have multiple entries for the same platform?

There are multiple database entries for the same platform to represent all operators, main versions, subversions and weapon configurations over time.


Why no TASM (Tomahawk Anti-Ship Missile) after 1991?

The nuclear (TLAM-N) and anti-ship (TASM) variants of the Tomahawk missile were withdrawn in the early 1990s after the Cold War had ended. TASM was withdrawn because there was no longer any chance of blue-water engagements against a navy with large, high-value targets like the Soviets, and many of the missiles were converted to land attack. The TLAM-N was withdrawn as per a 1991 agreement with Russia to not deploy nuclear weapons at sea (other than strategic ballistic missiles).


Why are later S-3 Viking variants not carrying ASW weapons?

The Viking’s ASW role was removed in 1999. US aircraft carriers then deployed with six S-3 Vikings; some for the tanker role, and two aircraft dedicated to ASuW armed with iron bombs, Harpoons and Mavericks. The ASW mission was taken over by Seahawks and Orions. The Viking was retired from frontline service in 2009.


Why do many guns have such a low PoK against aerial targets?

Many air targets like anti-ship cruise missiles are extremely difficult to shoot down. And even if destroyed in mid-air, the missile may still cause serious damage if the warhead detonates at ranges closer than 500m from the target, or if the ship is hit by debris from a disabled missile. In the Falklands War, only one of six Exocet missiles fired at British ships was shot down, and this kill is not even 100% certain. PoK (Probability of Kill) for guns is the chance of hitting a target with a burst of fire – this can either be a single round (for larger guns) or up to several hundred (for Mk15, AK-630 etc).


Why do Aegis ships (and others) have empty Mk41 VLS cells in the database?

There are not enough weapons around to fill all VLS cells, so ships deploy with empty cells. Typical loadout for a Tico, for instance, is 96x SM-2s, 48 per VLS. The ‘heavy’ AAW loadout for Burkes is 72x SM-2. The ships also carry a handful Tomahawks and VLAs.


Why do not newer USN Arleigh Burke Flight IIA ships carry any Harpoon missiles?

The USN is not fitting Harpoon missiles to new ships. They carry helicopters instead. The anti-surface task is now left to carrier air and to submarines (using torpedoes only). If you look in the database there are no Sub-Harpoon missiles on modern submarines either. These were withdrawn in the late 1990s.


Why do newer USN Arleigh Burke Flight IIA ships not carry any SM-2MR missiles by default?

ESSM replaces both the SM-2 and CIWS on newer Burkes, although a single CIWS has been re-installed on some ships. You can reconfigure the Burkes from land-attack role (which is the default loadout used in the database) to AAW manually in the scenario editor. The standard AAW loadout on the Burkes comprise 72 SM-2MRs (96 SM-2MRs on the Ticonderogas), a handful Tomahawks (probably 8-10) and some VLAs.

24x SAMs used to be (and still is?) the ‘standard destroyer loadout’ of anti-air missiles. Whether its SM-2 or ESSM. This is also the same number of SAMs that the Spruance carried, however the Burke can fire them all at once. So 24x anti-air missiles is a pretty potent loadout in most environments. Aircraft carriers used to have 24x ready-fire Sea Sparrows (see a pattern?), however this has now been changed to 16x + 42x RAM.

So the default missile loadouts in the database are ‘typical loadouts’ and, like it or not, are realistic. The good thing about Command, though, is that you are free to configure the VLS the way you want in the scenario editor.


Why do USN Arleigh Burke ships not carry any SM-3 missiles by default?

The USN is upgrading its AEGIS cruisers (CGs) and destroyers (DDGs) with Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) capabilities, which includes upgraded radars and the new SM-3 Standard missile. However, few missiles are available and are only carried by a handful ships.

Because of this, all BMD-capable ships have room for SM-3 missiles in their Mk41 Vertical Launch Systems (VLS’s) however the default quantity in the Command database is 0. The only ship in the database that actually have any SM-3s loaded by default is the ‘CG 70 Lake Erie’ sub-class.

If you want your BMD-capable ship to carry these weapons you can load them manually in the scenario editor. This is a pretty straightforward job and is described in detail in the Command manual.


Why aren’t F-111s armed with AGM-65 Maverick missiles in the simulator?

Just because an aircraft is able to physically carry a given weapon does not mean the pilots train to use it operationally. For example, while A-10A Thunderbolt IIs are authorized to employ laser-guided bombs, they never do because Mavericks, iron bombs and cluster bombs are their weapons of choice. The F-111Fs are authorized to deliver Maverick missiles but they never train with this weapon, preferring their trusty LGBs instead.


Why is there no 10-AMRAAM loadout for the F/A-18 Hornet?

The short answer is weight & drag, and weapon availability. Plus there’s a psychological aspect; when fighters carry more missiles, pilots tend to ‘hang around’ longer which dramatically increases the chance of getting killed. Shoot your missiles and get outa there!


Why is there no 6-Phoenix loadout for the F-14 Tomcat?

Except for Crazy Bob’s CVW-11, the F-14 Tomcat never trained to use the 6-Phoenix operationally. Most photos of the 6-Phoenix loadout that you find on the interweb were taken of aircraft flying from land bases or during the first fleet qualification trials back in 1972. Slamming a fully loaded 50,000lb & 140kt monster into the deck of a carrier was found to be unpractical since fuel levels had to be dangerously low for it to be safe. In fact, even the 4-Phoenix loadout on the F-14 was considered draggy by the pilots and was rarely used.

Another fact of life was that there weren’t enough AIM-54s around to arm all 24/20/14/10 aircraft on a carrier with six AIM-54s each. A carrier would typically carry 96 rounds back in the golden years – sometimes fewer and sometimes more. There were rumors that a carrier (USS John F. Kennedy?) once carried 300 AIM-54s when going north to provoke the Soviets off Kola in the 1980s, but this information has never been confirmed by other (reliable) sources.

So instead of having aircraft flying with unrealistically heavy loadouts, the Command developer has added lighter loadouts that were indeed used operationally. These loadouts offer a number of advantages such as speed and range / endurance. For instance, it was common for F-14s to carry only four missiles on CAP, i.e. 2x AIM-7s and 2x AIM-9s or one AIM-54s, one AIM-7 and a pair of AIM-9s. The player will therefore have to consider the trade-offs between endurance and punch as it is done in real life.


What is so special about the ‘F-14A Tomcat [Crazy Bob]’ database entry?

F-14s didn’t use the 6-Phoenix loadout operationally, except for a few years (1982-1986) when “Crazy Bob” (aka Capt. R. L. Leuschner) was Commanding Officer of USS Enterprise with Carrier Air Wing Eleven (CVW-11) embarked. He was legendary for elaborate and highly realistic combat-drills. Here is some creative copy-paste from a discussion on Airliners.net:

In early ’80s CVW-11 F-14 Tomcats regularly flew exercise missions with 6-0-2 loads [6xAIM54, 0xAIM7, 2xAIM9]. As combat training exercises, the missiles were all dummies, but at full size and weight. F-14A’s had to be pretty low on the fuel when returning,but since we were simulating real combat scenarios the objective was to exercise the equipment & crew as you would during real combat missions.

As to weight vs. drag issue, the weight always became the real issue since the AIM54 was about 1,000 lbs. The more you load, the higher the fuel burn, less manouverable the plane and lighter the fuel load required for CV landing. A 6-0-2 load would be for a pretty “strategic” mission. The standard “tactical” load was 1-1-1 or 2-2-2 (or some combination of same). Since the F14 was designed with the pallet system, the pallets did not create much aerodynamic issues for the F14. You can not compare the pallet issue with other aircraft though as no other fighter was designed to use the pallets… no other fighter used the AIM-54 either.

CVW-11/BG-F was the first battle group to actually count the weapons used during OpEval exercises, probability-of-kill (PK) for all missile shots [both surface-to-air and air-to-air] and realistic “turnaround” times for returning planes to be used again [required actual downloading of weapons and uploading of new (different) weapons]. We were even trying to simulate missile time-of-flight to impact. Plus a whole host of other stuff was just “swag’d” before then. CVBG magazine mix was significantly changed when the pentagon planners started to see actual weapon use levels.

The more Phoenix one carried, the more “strategic” the mission… and the less manouverability/speed required. When carrying a lot of AIM-54’s, you’re going after bombers so range is more important to start with. Therefore, the range reduction was “worse” but could be countered with effective tanker practices. It became pretty much SOP for CVW-11 F-14s to operate 1,000 nm missions with 6-0-2 loads. Big headache for the Hummer Moles (E-2C Hawkeye radar operators) [who had to coordinate all the real-time support for such missions] and I don’t want to know what the “lucky” guys who flew them were thinking.

There are many sea-tales about Capt. Bob, most of which are based in significant fact. Yes, he had a hand in the “realism” but CVW-11’s “Burner Bob” Hickey was the one who started the counting of actual weapons used. When compared to what the ship’s magazines stored, the discrepancies were “enlightening” to say the least. Once the ball got rolling, we kept getting more and more “realistic.” SecNav Lehman flew aboard once during OpEval and the Hummer’s reply to his check-in was “turn right 40 degrees, descend & maintain XXXXX, welcome to the Big-E’s world Navy-1, by the way… you’re dead.” I kept the tape of that for almost 6 months.

Lehman was a USN Reserve A-6 Bomber-Navigator flying during his “active duty assignment.” They did not do ANY of the appropriate “friendly ID” things they were supposed to do so… they became just one of the 486 “enemy” targets shot down that day [Orange Forces launched 485 planes so we were pretty busy and he just got caught up in all the missile firings]. He was just a bit “upset” and I guess his pilot (supposedly that squadron’s “top hook”) making 4 bolters before successfully trapping aboard Big-E didn’t help his attitude [the square island makes for an ugly “burble” behind the ship]. IIRC, it was Leuschner who squeezed him into the back-end of an E-2C sitting on the flight deck (only working CIC available on the ship due to simulated “battle damage”) to show him the progress of the “war.” His spirits were much improved by the time he met us after we landed some 4+ hours later. Improved even more the next day as he got to watch/listen to the early morning 900+nm 45-aircraft “Alpha Strike” on NAS Miramar, NAS North Island, and NALF San Clemente (the “orange force” airfields). So much so he had Orange Forces “stand down” for the day [unheard of in exercises] since they supposedly had no useable runways anymore. That worked out much better than it was planned. That was but one day. OpEval lasted 3 full weeks.


Why is the AN/AWG-9 radar on the F-14 Tomcat limited to a 40 deg search arc?

Although the AN/AWG-9 has a +/- 65 degrees frontal scan sector, the aircraft doesn’t search arcs larger than 40 deg / 2 bars or 20 deg / 4 bars at a time. This is so that tracks can be updated every 2 seconds. A full 130 deg / 8 bar sweep may take as much as 30 seconds and has limited tactical use. As such, it has a 40 degree frontal arc in Command.

Looking beyond Command v1.04, the plan is to allow the AI and player to turn the search arc (scan cone) sideways, so the aircraft can scan 65-25 deg off-angle. The aircraft can then launch medium-range missiles, turn 60-ish degrees to reduce the closure rate, and still guide missiles to the target. Getting this to work properly for all aircraft/weapon and tactical combinations is a bit of a pain so will take time to implement and test. However the database has already been updated supports this so the groundwork has already been done. The developer won’t give any promises on ETA, though.


My F-16C Falcon with the Sniper pod can ID targets at ranges up to 70nm. How is that possible?

Please check out this link. The Sniper pod can magnify up to 30 times. Similar pods like ATFLIR have really impressive ranges too.

However, scanning for targets using these systems is like looking through a straw and is difficult. They do not have an auto-scan mode either. As such, the pods are primarily slaved to the radar when used in the air-to-air role, and are used to ID targets already detected.


Why won’t my fighter jets fly faster than 925kt (Mach 1.6)?

Warplanes never fly at their theoretic maximum speeds operationally. Over a fighter aircraft’s 6000-8000hrs life span, less than 10% is spent at supersonic speeds. Most airframes will never even go beyond Mach 2, and certainly not while flying a combat sortie. Aircraft use a lot of fuel accelerating and maintaining those speeds, and going beyond 925kt (Mach 1.6) offers no real tactical advantages and may even be impossible simply due to the long time it takes to accelerate to those speeds and the insane amounts of fuel needed to get there. Furthermore, in many cases getting to those speeds will be physically impossible due to weapon and drop tank drag, weapon release envelope limitations, and the possibility of damaging or even detonating external stores. For instance, the special 500kg bombs carried by the MiG-25 recon/bomber variant were given a thermal protection coating to prevent the explosives from over-heating at Mach 2.35.

And let us not forget that ejection at high speeds is extremely dangerous. For most ejection seats, the chance of survival drops dramatically above 600kt or ca Mach 1.0. Even if the pilot survives he is likely seriously injured and may be grounded for good. So although the airframe and engines can push it to Mach 2.0 and beyond, the pilot simply won’t. Especially not in a shooting war.

Command takes aim at simulating a modern battlefield and therefore uses practical operational aircraft speed limitations. Theoretical specs are left out. That means most modern combat aircraft will not fly faster than Mach 1.6 in the simulator. The fuel burn rates are adjusted accordingly, and for example the F-14D Tomcat can fly 230nm Deck Launched Intercept (DLI) missions at Mach 1.6 dash. There are of course numerous exceptions and fighters like F-22A Raptor, MiG-25 Foxbat and MiG-31 Foxhound can easily fly faster. The same goes for aircraft like the SR-71 which can cruise at Mach 3.2. The MiG-25/31 series can perform intercepts at speeds up to Mach 2.35 in the simulator, and F-111s can do an amazing 800kt dash on target at sea level for delivering iron bombs. F-104 Starfighters and English Electric Lightnings have a 1150kt TAS (Mach 2.0) maximum speed to reflect their unique capabilities.

Below are a few Standard Aircraft Characteristics (SAC’s) from the Alternate Wars website with some great examples of maximum operational combat speeds:

F-16 Falcon, minimum time intercept, Mach 1.6 and 40k feet… This is as fast F-16s go during combat operations.

F-14A Tomcat, Mach 1.35 intercept speed.

F-14D Tomcat, Mach 1.5 intercept speed.

F-4B Phantom and F-4J Phantom, acceleration to Mach 1.5 for weapon release. Fighter escort missions are not expected to exceed Mach 1.0. Typical CAP max speed is Mach 1.35.

The mighty A-5 Vigilante (A-5A, A-5B, A-5C) with its high speed, large fuel load and 1300nm+ strike radius (in effect no fuel limitations) would typically do Mach 1.5 sprints on target.

The F-104B Starfighter, F-104C Starfighter, and the other members of the Starfighter manned rocket family are outliers similar to MiG-25/31 series and have a Mach 2.0 intercept speed in the simulator.

If you still think these speed limitations are unreasonable please grab a flight simulator like Falcon 4.0 or DCS World and attempt to fly combat sorties at 1400kt, 1200kt or even just 1000kt true air speed (TAS). Make sense now?

NOTE #1: Based on feedback from currently serving and retired fighter pilots flying such aircraft, we reduced the typical top speed for 3rd and 4th generation fighters from Mach 1.65 (950kt) to Mach 1.60 (925kt) in version v1.08. It turns out that even our own estimates were too optimistic!

NOTE #2: We have repeatedly solicited real-life data pointing to fighter aircraft achieving higher speeds in actual operations than the ones we derived. No such info has been put forward so far.

NOTE #3: It seems that John Tiller and the late, great Gary C. Morgan agree with us. Here is a screenshot from “Modern Air Power – War over the Middle East” displaying info for various modern fighters. Notice the max speeds!

NOTE #4: Another example, this time by a retired F-15A/C pilot: “[…] in normal training or combat configuration, I doubt anyone has gotten an Eagle much over Mach 1.8 in level flight”. This is actually higher than off-the-record quotes to us by other former pilots.


F-22 Engine StatsWhy doesn’t the F-22A Raptor have a separate Afterburner throttle setting?

Please see the screenshot from the database editor. It gives some clues about what’s going on under the hood.

The reason the afterburner (AB) setting is missing is because the F-22 doesn’t use AB for cruise, only acceleration/climb/dogfighting. We would like to expand our propulsion model post-Command v1.04, but have a bunch of other things we want to do first.

When that’s said, the F-22 will fly at 1000kt using Military power so fuel consumption is quite good. No afterburner-style ‘dry in 15 minutes’ burn rates.


Why does the F-22A Raptor have a 480kt cruise speed like most 4th generation fighters?

Physical laws apply to the F-22, even at $200 million a copy. So although we’re lacking a lot of stats on engines and airframe capabilities, we can still make some (painfully?) realistic assumptions about the aircraft’s capabilities.

Having a fixed and inefficient ‘stealth’ jet intake and duct has a nasty effect on the F-22’s thrust/SFC. Static military thrust at sea level (SL) for the F119-PW-100 is supposedly 25000lb and Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC) is probably 0.76. Which is slightly higher than for the latest F100 engines on the F-15C/E Eagle.

The static thrust figure is for an engine installed on a test rig. When installed on the aircraft the thrust drops due to inefficient inlets. Adjusting for altitude and Mach speed (yes, we actually do that in Command!) the thrust for each F119-PW-100 engine on a F-22 flying at military throttle (650kt) at sea level, is 16764lb. SFC is 1.04. The SFC is calculated as follows: Thrust / (1 + Constant * Mach) * Density.

Public sources suggest that the F-22 is only capable of doing relatively short ‘sprints’ at full military throttle (supercruise) in real life. The military thrust in the simulator is 10083lb and SFC is 1.32 at 36k ft and Mach 1.75. Fuel consumption at full military throttle for the F-22 is quite high. 100083lb * 1.32 SFC * 2 engines = 26500lb of fuel burned per hour. Which is 6000lb more fuel than the F-22 carries. So the “800nm combat radius at Mach 1.6” capability is a myth. A typical combat sortie is flown mostly at subsonic speeds.
A cruise speed of around 480-500kt (Mach 0.85) is the most economical as the engines are working efficiently and drag is relatively low. Transonic drag is very (very!) high, but drops sharply beyond Mach 1. However beyond Mach 1 drag is still higher than at Mach 0.85 so fuel consumption goes up and range suffers. This is true for all aircraft, F-22 included. So everything points towards 480kt as a realistic cruise speed. And you can always hit ‘Military Throttle’ and go to 1000kt supercruise (ca Mach 1.75) with relatively economical fuel consumption.


The F-35A Lightning II supposedly has a Mach 0.9 cruise speed but in Command it is ‘only’ 480kts. Why?

A Mach 0.9 cruise speed at 36k feet is ca 515 knots. In other words a 35kt difference between the stated speed and the one used in the simulator. But will the F-35 really cruise faster than 4th generation fighters? While normally “Because I can” is a 100% valid argument, in this case it is not so certain. Higher speeds and supercruise is great to use in tactical scenarios, but just while cruising it is more common to see various participants in a mission choose the same ingress speed, so that you can talk in timings easily as well. Luckily though, in Command you can manually set the desired speed. So feel free to increase speed to 515kt or 535kt. Fuel consumption goes up, of course.


Radar types: FCR, target indicator, weapon director, radar illuminator? What does it all mean?

FCR – Fire control Radar is a radar which is designed specifically to provide information (mainly target azimuth, elevation, range and velocity) to a fire-control system in order to calculate a firing solution (i.e. information on how to direct weapons such that they hit the target(s)).

Target Indicator – A radar of lesser range capabilities but of greater inherent accuracy than that of surveillance radar, whose normal function is to acquire aerial targets either by independent search or on direction of the surveillance radar, and to transfer these targets to tracking radars.

Weapon director – An anti-aircraft artillery radar that directs gunfire.

Radar illuminator – An anti-aircraft radar that illuminates targets for Semi-Active Radar Homing (SARH) weapons.

Let’s look at the radars for a SA-5b (S-200V) Surface-to-Air Missile (SAM) system: Square Pair (5N62) – FCR-radar. This will be used to guide missiles to target. No need to manually active them. Odd Pair A HF (PRV-13) – Heigh-Finder. Older 2D radars are unable to obtain height of the target. Also they had blind spot for low flying aircraft/helicopter. A second radar was used to overcome these weaknesses. Tall King – 2D Long Range. Main radar for detection.


Why does the Mk214 Sea Gnat Chaff have “surface ships” as valid target?

For decoys, the “valid target” value represents the type of contact they will represent to enemy sensors.


Why do torpedoes have such a short range?

Simulating technical limitations is one thing, taking into account practical ‘field limitations’ is another. In order to have a realistic simulator we need to take into account both. For instance, Soviet doctrine stated that torpedoes should not be fired at targets beyond 13k yards. The chance of actually hitting the target drops dramatically beyond that range while at the same time you notify the target about your presence and possibly even give away your (approximate) position. This also goes for the super-heavy 650mm torpedoes, which would use their speed and range to catch up with a fleeing US CVN. As such, the practical firing range in Command is limited to ca 8nm, even for high-end torpedoes. It makes sure that both the player and the AI adhere to the same real life technical/tactical/doctrine/field limitations. The ADCAP still has enough fuel to make it out to 20nm at 55kt, or 27nm at 40kt.

We can easily lift the practical firing range limitations and let the AI shoot at any target within kinematic range. In fact that’s how the simulator handled it for a while. So the functionality is already there – we do on-the-fly Dynamic Launch Zone (DLZ) calculations for SAM/AAMs to allow weapons to be fired ‘early’ to hit a fast closing target like an ASBM. But for relatively slow tops and fast ships this leads to a lot of stupid shots as the weapons are usually detected early and the defender has lots of time to move out of the way.

It is still possible to BOL-launch torpedoes if you want to fire the weapon at long ranges. You can then manually steer them to their target at max range – granted the weapons have wire guidance and you don’t fire more torpedoes than you have wire guidance channels.

We actually tried a more advanced method for determining max firing range based on torpedo speed and target speed & heading. This resulted in a lot of stupid shots while the AI was building a firing resolution. If you have contact at 20nm but no speed info, do you shoot? No? But if the same contact is at 4nm? Etc, etc.

The end result was that the targets fled as soon as the submarine fired a torpedo, and helicopters scrambled to locate and sink the ship. The submarine-fired torpedoes were outrun one hundred percent of the time. A diesel sub in this situation is in pretty deep poo-poo since it doesn’t have the speed to catch up with the fleeing SAG or fast convoy, and also lacks the speed and diving depth to get the hell outa here before the helos start dipping their sonars. This situation got even worse when the opening long-range shot was against one of the outer screen ASW escorts. The SAG/convoy would automatically turn around and run, and there was no way an AI-controlled submarine would ever get into position for a shot on the HVUs. As such, limiting the firing range from ‘max theoretical’ to ‘max practical’ the AI was much more successful. It would wait for the targets to get real close before shooting off torpedoes and sinking ships in quick succession.

As for fighting other submarines, sub-vs-sub is like a knife fight in a phone booth. Torpedo launch usually takes place at around 1nm. So the firing range limit is pretty much a non-issue there.


What advantage does New Threat Update (NTU) ships have over pre-NTU ships?

New Threat Upgrade (NTU) was a United States Navy program to improve the capability of ships equipped with Terrier and Tartar anti-aircraft systems. The system allows the ships to which it was fitted to time share illumination radars for multiple missile interceptions in a manner similar to the Aegis Combat System. For details, see the NTU article on Wikipedia.
Pre-NTU upgrade ships have pure-SARH Terrier/Tartar, SM-1ER or SM-2ER missiles that fly a direct pursuit flight profile. Post-upgrade ships have upgraded missiles, time-shared SARH illumination, and AEGIS-style weapon datalink which means the ship is communicating with the weapons and directs them to a “kill box”. The missiles fly a lead pursuit and a highly economical lofted profile, and can also be re-targeted in-flight. Command does all of this, including automatic re-targeting.

The difference in efficiency between pre-NTU direct pursuit and NTU lead pursuit profiles is best demonstrated against fast crossing targets such as SS-N-12 Sandbox or SS-N-19 Shipwreck anti-ship missiles. The old Standard, Terrier and Tartar missiles will in most cases end up in an ineffective tail chase and in many cases be unable to overtake the target or lose guidance due to illumination issues (illuminator/SAM/target geometry). The newer SM-2ERs on the other hand are actually quite effective.

You can test the difference yourself, by inserting pre-NTU and NTU variants for the CG 16 Leahy class cruisers, and have them defend a HVU against SS-N-12s.


The radar ’Rock Cake HF [PRV-10M] does not seem to be working. Why?

This is a height-finding radar (HF), which provides height information on contacts detected by search radars.

Air Operations


Why do most combat aircraft have a 40 000 feet (12192 m) ceiling?

Combat aircraft rarely go higher than 40k ft. In special cases 45k ft but not higher than that.


What is the yellow “L0” or “L1” under aircraft symbols?

This is the landing priority number. Aircraft at the marshal point are automatically prioritized based on remaining endurance. Aircraft L0 gets to land first.


How can I get aircraft to egress from target on a plotted path instead of calling Winchester?

If the aircraft are assigned to a mission, make sure the RTB When Winchester option in the Doctrine / ROE / EMCON window is set to off. Then check the ‘Use Auto Planner’ in the Mission Editor. The mission logics will then automatically create randomly placed ingress and egress routes from the target based on the mission’s default profile.

Alternatively, you can unassign the aircraft from the mission, plot a course manually, make sure that either the the RTB When Winchester option in the Doctrine / ROE / EMCON window is set to off for the air group, and manually allocate weapons through the Manual Allocation (Shift + F1) window.


Is the grounding of aircraft simulated because of bad weather or night-time conditions?

Not in Command 1.04. It is our plan to add this, however. And when it’s there you’ll probably wish it wasn’t hehe.


How can I get ground units to illuminate targets for air-dropped Laser-Guided Bombs (LGBs)?

Ground units illuminate targets automatically if the aircraft do not have an onboard laser illuminator, once the aircraft releases the bomb.


Is it possible to jettison drop tanks and ordnance on aircraft?

Not at the moment. For this to work in a simulator like Command there are a few concerns that would need to be worked out, particularly on the AI side as well as calculating pre/post jettison endurance, etc. But it will likely be added in the future since we like the idea of ‘soft kills’ on strike aircraft because your anti-air missiles, while they didn’t hit, did cause the enemy to jettison stores and abort their mission.


Is it possible to land one’s aircraft at an airbase or airport belonging to an allied side?

Yes, allied air bases work the same way as any own-side air bases.


Is it possible to drop ordnance at a given location irrespective of any enemy units being there?

Dropping bombs on a coordinate is not possible in Command v1.04 but is planned for the Advanced Strike Mission Editor. Currently you can only drop bombs on contacts.


What is the deal with the “Maintenance (Unavailable)” loadout?

The aircraft fitted with the Maintenance (Unavailable) loadout are a representation of the typical situation in an airbase. You have a number of aircraft that you cannot use, but they are there nevertheless, and they take up space and resources. The fact that you cannot use them doesn’t make them invisible. Not having them at all would make your entire airbase’s resources available to the player e.g. 10 out of 10 usable aircraft. Which of the two is more realistic?

As such, you can have 60 aircraft on an air base but only 4 available for operations. Unfortunately for the player that happens in real life and is (painfully) realistic. Since it happens in real life, it also happens in Command.

Plus they make great targets. Don’t you just love scrubbing a airbase clean of aircraft with cluster bombs.


What is the difference between ‘Reserve’ and ‘Unavailable’ loadouts?

If the scenario author wants aircraft to be unavailable at the start of a scenario but become ready for operations later on he would give them the ‘Reserve’ loadout rather than the ‘Unavailable’ loadout. ‘Unavailable’ means unavailable for the duration of the scenario. Alternatively, the scenario author can arm the aircraft with the intended combat loadout and manually give them a delayed ‘ready time’.


Is there a way to activate aircraft set to Maintenance (Unavailable)?

No, aircraft set to Maintenance (Unavailable) can not be used in the scenario. If you are designing a scenario and want the aircraft to become ready later on, you can load them with a weapon loadout or Reserve loadout, and specify a Ready Time.


Why does it take 6 hours to prepare my strike aircraft for a sortie?

The short answer is we look at everything involved in launching a mission including arming, planning etc. and not just the physical act of loading weapons on to the aircraft. For a quick introduction to this complex subject, please read the following article on Aircraft Sortie Rates.


I do not want aircraft to be down for maintenance or use realistic ready times, how can that be done?

You you can do a couple things to solve this, by using the scenario editor:

a) Unavailable aircraft: Open the scenario in the scenario editor and change the loadout from ‘maintenance’ to a mission loadout.

b) Aircraft ready times: Play the scenario in the scenario editor, and reload the aircraft using the ‘Ready Immediately’ option.


CarrierDeckCan I manually move aircraft from hangar to flight deck on aircraft carriers?

It is not possible to manually move aircraft between flight deck and hangar in Command 1.04. However, readied aircraft are automatically moved to the flight deck, and landing aircraft move to the hangar.

The size of the flight deck of a Nimitz-class carrier is 80 F/A-18A/C (medium aircraft) spots. The maximum combined hangar and flight deck spot capacity is 130. When loaded to the maximum no sorties can be generated since there is no room to operate, and the deck is considered ‘locked’. In the mid-1970s the operating capacity was set to 75 percent, with 80 percent as a maximum upper bound.

In Command it is possible to put a maximum of 60 large aircraft (which roughly equals 80 medium aircraft) on the flight deck of a Nimitz-class aircraft carrier. Four parking spots are reserved for returning aircraft to avoid congestion in case the elevators are busy, so a total of 56 large aircraft will be moved from the hangar to the flight deck when readied.

In practice the player or scenario designer would rarely be able to put this many aircraft on the deck unless he does something really weird / unrealistic / stupid, like making too many aircraft available for operations or adding too many aircraft to the ship. A minimum of 25% and typically 35-50% of the aircraft will be permanently under maintenance, in the air, or not scheduled for flying at any given time. So even with a 85-aircraft wing it would be rare to see a full deck in Command.

In the photo to the right there are at least 52 aircraft on the deck. If you move 1x aircraft you can launch from two cats, and if you move 5-6 aircraft you’d also be able to recover aircraft.


Do UAVs behave differently from manned aircraft?

Yes, UAVs do not apply their agility bonus on the weapon endgame calculations. As a result they are terribly vulnerable to anti-air fire. Remote human operators must rely on their sensor information instead of their own eyes. As a consequence they might have having less situation awareness (looking through an EO/IR sensor is always compared to “looking through a straw”) and might be unable to respond or evade ground fire as quickly.


The loadout selection window has “time-of-day” and “weather” columns. Are these in use?

Weather and day/night limitations are not yet supported in Command v1.04. The database development is slightly ahead of the simulator engine development, and we have populated various database fields to support future features.


Can I reload my aircraft without air-to-air weapons in air-to-ground loadouts?

Yes, you can ready aircraft using the ‘Exclude Optional Weapons’ option. This will load the aircraft without self-defence air-to-air missiles, or with a reduced number of self-defence missiles.


Why do my aircraft fly at 350kt on patrol, 480kt when Bingo and 520kt on manual RTB?

350 knots is loiter throttle. Great for maximum endurance (hence for e.g patrolling an area), not ideal for maximum distance covered per fuel unit.

480 knots is cruise throttle. Not so good endurance, but maximum range for given fuel. When the aircraft reaches Bingo fuel that’s what it needs.

520 knots is full military throttle. If you order a manual Return to Base (RTB) or the aircraft go Winchester they will try to get outa there as fast as possible, granted there is enough fuel to do a fast sprint.


What is the best way to disable an airbase?

The simple answer is that it varies a lot. Depending on the airfield configuration, the runway or the access points may well be the best targets, but if its an open airfield with only tarmac parking instead of hangars/revetments, then a single strike has a chance of getting rid of a significant portion of the aircraft based there.

It is also dependant on what you have available for weapons – some of the high penetration cruise missiles or bombs are ideal for getting rid of ammo bunkers, whereas regular iron bombs or JDAMs are more suited for runway and parking area removal.

My general approach is to assess airfields based on 3 criteria;
1. Number of access points vs number of runways/taxiways
2. Type of aircraft parking – open vs protected (hangar) vs hardened (HAS or underground)
3. Concentration of ammo storage

The first often lets you filter out those airfields that are fairly easy to shut down – if for example there is 1 runway with 3 access points, the access points are the obvious and easier targets, and will completely neutralize the airfield. Larger airfields become progressively harder to do this to, as they can have 4-8 access points per runway, as well as several runways/runway-capable taxiways. In these cases, it may be more sensible to strike the runways instead, or look at other ways to disable the base.

The second criteria is important because it lets you neutralize the airfield by destroying the aircraft based there. A lot of large civilian airports have many access points and runways, but typically very unprotected parking spaces, so if faced with this kind of facility, then the logical target is the aircraft themselves, often arranged in fairly dense parking areas, and vulnerable to strikes. Military bases will often have revetments or hangars which will limit damage (particularly blast damage to the surroundings), and so it will be harder to eliminate the aircraft, though in some cases only fighters will be protected by hangars, with larger aircraft like AWACS/Tankers/etc. left in the open. The worst targets are those with underground aircraft storage, as these take either specialized munitions or a lot of bombardment to crack open.

Lastly, looking at how ammo is stored can provide a third approach to neutralizing a base. Most bases will have several ammo depots/bunkers, but some will only have one, and if this is only a surface depot then it presents a clear vulnerability. Even a single ammo bunker may be the easiest target in a hardened base, especially if you have the correct weapons. This last one is also of course dependent on if you are using the ‘unlimited weapons at bases’ realism option.

Submarine & Anti-Submarine Operations


My submarine’s batteries are drained. How do I recharge?

Go to periscope depth. The submarine will automatically raise the snorkel, start the diesel generators, and begin recharging batteries. If you want to recharge batteries faster, set throttle to creep so that you don’t drain the batteries while you recharge.


How do I deploy towed array sonar?

Towed array sonar is automatically deployed and used in deep enough water. If you can see the faint Convergence Zone (CZ) rings around your ship/sub then you have a towed array operational.


How is submarine communications handled?

All platform-to-platform communication is instantaneous. So you’re allowed to actively control units and share information between them even in situations when it would be impossible in real life. However, Command has a fairly complex platform-to-weapon datalink model including one and two-way communication. Two-way communication allows the weapon to pass data to the operator, e.g. Walleye, SLAM-ER and Tactical Tomahawk, where as one-way communication only sends target position updates to the weapon. The simulator also handles wire-guidance (for both torpedoes and missiles) and command guidance.

If you feel there is too much communications between units, you can choose to add surface units and the submarines (or each submarine) to separate sides. You can control how much information they share, without making them hostile to one another, by setting side postures as either friendly (shares location and treats anyone attacking you as hostile) or neutral (is not hostile but does not share information, etc.). You get some interesting results by setting side A as friendly to side B but setting side B as neutral to side A.

Beginning with v1.12 Command now supports communication disruption and (in the Professional Edition only) an integrated communications jamming model. Among other things, this allows you to simulate submarines and other platforms (e.g. film satellites) being isolated from their parent side. Read about this feature and the new simulation opportunities it offers HERE.


How do I get helicopters (or aircraft) to search for submarines?

To set up ASW patrols define an area using reference points. Create a mission “Patrol/ ASW” and assign the vessels and/or helicopters and/or aircraft to that mission.


I’m trying to change the depth of my submarine but my orders are ignored. Why??

If you’re on an ASW or Sea Control mission the logic will dictate speed and depth. You can use the Unassign (U) hotkey to remove the unit from the mission. If you’d like more manual control, turn off the automatic evasion ROE as this controls the engaged defensive logic.


My ASW aircraft have localized a submarine target but are not dropping a torpedo on it until they’re virtually on top of it, even though the torp has several miles range. Why?

Real-life ASW tactics, dictated by physics. If you drop the torpedo from further away, it takes some time (and much of its fuel) to get at the pre-drop target position, and if the sub captain is not deaf he has cleared datum at high speed. The only way to give the torpedo a good chance of catching up with the submarine is to drop it as close to its estimated position as possible.

Simulator Mechanics


Command is missing a feature that I’d really like to see implemented. What can I do?

Please go to Gameplay Features thread. If your feature is already on the list and wish it to receive higher priority bump it with your vote. If not, write a post with your request and it might be added to the list.


Are High Off-Boresight (HOB) Air-to-Air Missiles (AAMs) simulated?

There’s both a HOB flag for weapons and a Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) flag for aircraft. The two can but don’t always combine. The simulator is modelling each of these factors as having a cumulative effect. So:
– Standard missile, guided weapon, or torpedo: 40 degrees firing arc
– HOB missile: +20 deg.
– HMD: +30 deg.

So for example an early MiG-29 Fulcrum A with AA-8 Aphid [R-60TM] (HMD, no HOB) has 70-deg capability. An F-16C Fighting Falcon with AIM-9X Sidewinder (HOB) but no HMD can shoot up to 60 deg. And a Su-27 Flanker with AA-11 Archer [R-73] or F-15I Eagle with Python 4 (HOB + HMD) can go all the way to 90 deg.


Do anti-air missiles have their base hit probabilities adjusted for range?

To reflect their reduced manoeuvrability at extended range, rocket-powered weapons (most missiles) have their PHs maximized at 50% of maximum range and gradually reduced up to 50% of the base-PH at full range. Ramjet-powered weapons (Sea Dart, SA-6, Meteor etc.) are less affected; they maintain their full base-PHs up to 75% of maximum range and their max PH reduction is 25% of original.


Do aircraft bombsight affect bombing accuracy?

Yes the bombsight affects the Circular Error Probability (CEP) for ballistic weapons (bombs and rockets) as follows.

Basic: No reduction
Ballistic Computing: 25% reduction
Advanced Computing: 50% reduction
Advanced Navigation (INS/GPS): 75% reduction


How does the sim treat periscopes?

Periscopes are automatically raised when the submarine gets to periscope depth.


Can flying boats land on water?

Not in Command v1.04. We would like to add this in the future though.


Do you take Daylight Saving Time (DST) into account?

Command relies primarily on Zulu time, which is the military name for Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). This is almost the same as Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), but not exactly.

In addition, Command displays local time without Daylight Saving Time, also known as Summer Time or DST. Many countries in the northern hemisphere (north of the equator) have decided to make better use of the natural daylight by setting the clock forward one hour during the summer months, and back again in the fall. Daylight saving time is in use between March and April and ends between September and November, and the exact dates varies with country and year.

In order to match local times with sunrise and sunset (important when planning air strikes), Command supports the use of DST. But since there are great variations in dates, the scenario designer will have to manually enter the start and end date for DST in his scenario. This is done with the Editor => Scenario Date and Duration dialog window. Command always assumes that daylight saving is one hour, although historically there have been (rare) examples of countries using two hours, 20 minutes, 30 minutes or 40 minutes DST.


Is the cloud cover spread throughout the whole world evenly, or localized in areas?

In Command v1.04 the weather is the same everywhere on the globe. Configurable localized weather is planned.


A group of infantry platoons moves but they are travelling at a really slow speed, why?

Land units move very slowly in harsh mountainous terrain. You can use the Relief map layer to visualize this, or the “Slope %” text on the map cursor for precise info. Once they get to flatter terrain they’ll pick up speed.


Is water depth taken into account?

Water depths do not currently have an effect for ships. However, water depths affect submarine operations and will force submarines to periscope depth or even to surface.


What is the communications model like?

All platform-to-platform communication is instantaneous. So you’re allowed to actively control units and share information between them even in situations when it would be impossible in real life.

Beginning with v1.12 Command now supports communication disruption and (in the Professional Edition only) an integrated communications jamming model. Read about this feature and the new simulation opportunities it offers HERE.

Command has a fairly complex platform-to-weapon datalink model including one and two-way communication. Two-way communication allows the weapon to pass data to the operator, e.g. Walleye, SLAM-ER and Tactical Tomahawk, where as one-way communication only sends target position updates to the weapon. The simulator also handles wire-guidance (for both torpedoes and missiles) and command guidance.


Do you simulate COMINT and communications jamming?

No COMINT yet (although this can be roughly modelled via Lua scripting). Beginning with v1.12 Command now supports communication disruption and (in the Professional Edition only) an integrated communications jamming model. Read about this feature and the new simulation opportunities it offers HERE.


What is the land warfare model like?

When discussing land units in Command, it is important to distinguish between assets that directly affect air/naval/strategic operations and those that are more “tactical”, field army-like.

The former are represented in excellent detail: Fixed and mobile radar sites, electronic warfare units, anti-aircraft units, long-range artillery and missile units, coastal anti-ship guns and missile launchers, even things like ICBM silos and underground command bunkers; everything is included and modelled meticulously and interacts realistically with air and naval forces. (If you want to see just why the S-400 is such a feared SAM system, or why mobile Scud launchers were such a pain to hunt down in Desert Storm, or how satellite surveillance allows you to keep updated target lists of ground forces, CMANO will show you. No ifs and buts.). Tactical units like infantry teams, tank platoons etc. are also present and can interact against air and naval forces (engage them and be engaged by them). With the introduction of unscripted cargo/airdrop/amphibious ops in v1.12 you can even transfer and drop units from airlifters, amphibious ships etc. and drop them anywhere suitable on the map for further use.

Where the limitations of CMANO most strongly manifest themselves is when you throw these ground units against each other for a Fulda Gap-like land engagement. For example, the absence of terrain cover at small scale (“what is forest?”) means that the units will very rapidly run out of ammo once they close within nominal weapon ranges, and the lack (currently) of automated resupply means keeping the units properly stocked becomes a manual chore. Warhead-vs-armor penetration & effects is simpler than in the rest of the game (because it gets squeezed at the very lowest end of the modelled range – remember, the upper end is battleship citadels, underground nuclear bunkers etc.). No cost-based pathfinding for sticking to roads etc. – YET. Units don’t do automatic replenishment shuttle runs back and forth from the line. And so on and so on. There is no single blocking item that outright forbids doing a land-centric battle, but the “Air/Naval” part of the title is there for a reason.

A complete list of land facilities and units in the database is available here: http://wiki.baloogancampaign.com/index.php/DataFacility?DB=DB3000

As long as you stay within the limitations of the engine, you can do a decent ground battle: Units engage each other reasonably, they are realistically handicapped by terrain slope (e.g. mech units on mountain ranges) and they do plot around non-passable terrain. Unguided weapons use CEP instead of just a PoK so weapon accuracy and target size actually matter, and near-misses or airbursts produce blast and frag (depending on warhead type) damage. Also fire-control of unguided weapons plays a critical role; the very same gun will have radically different accuracy if it’s aimed by a guy with bonoculars, a fire-control radar or laser designator – and problems in director operation (jammed, damaged/destroyed, blocked by weather etc.) also affect things. Aimpoint-type facilities & units means no more of the Harpoon-era “I’ll wipe that tank company with a single LGB” balooney. Plenty of ground-oriented warhead types like cluster munitions, FAEs, long-rod penetrator, HEAT etc. (browse the DB for a complete list). Faithful modelling of nuclear strengths and limitations on units in the field (e.g. if you expect to simply wipe out a massive armor assault with a tac nuke you may be disappointed). Arty units reasonably stand-off if they can, only few units types fire on the move, you can replenish units manually etc. etc. These things may sound bread-and-butter for anyone coming from a Steel Panthers / Armored Brigade / Armored TaskForce background but compared to anything else air/salt-focused out there it’s a quantum leap.

Baloogan had a few episodes featuring ground ops (most of them unsurprisingly focused on Ukraine) which demonstrated both the strengths and the limitations of ground ops in Command. These give a good sense of what one can do and what should be avoided. Implementation examples are plenty, as quite a few scenarios use ground units in one way or another. Is it Steel Panthers- or Armored Brigade-level ? Not yet (then again what else is), but we do want to get closer to that level. One step at a time.


Do you model the midnight sun and the polar night to the north/south of the arctic circles?

Yes, the simulator accurately adjust day/night conditions to simulate the midnight sun and the eternal darkness of the polar night:


What kinds of warhead types and explosives types are modelled?

In Command, one Damage Point (DP) equals 1kg of TNT. This is different from earlier simulators like Harpoon where 1DP = 5kg of TNT.

Command also automatically converts various explosives types to TNT equivalents. I.e. the Mk84 2000lb GPB [429kg/945lb Tritonal] has 429kg of HE [kg] Tritonal explosives, which automatically becomes 643.5 DP in the simulator since 1kg Tritonal = 1.5kg of TNT.

The Command damage model is being systematically improved and expanded. Command v1.04 has the following warhead types.

High Explosive (HE) Blast / Frag
Armor-Piercing (AP)
High Explosive Anti-Tank (HEAT) Shaped Charge
Incendiary (Napalm, WP)
Fragmentation
Semi Armor-Piercing (SAP)
High Explosive Splash Head (HESH)
Continuous Rod
Hard Target Penetrator (HTP)
Fuel-Air Explosive (FAE / Thermobaric)
Torpedo
Depth Charge
Nuclear
Chemical
Bacteriological
Cluster Bomb, Anti-Personnel (Fragmentation)
Cluster Bomb, Anti-Tank (Shaped Charge)
Cluster Bomb, Anti-Runway (Penetrator)
Cluster Bomb, Guided Submunitions, Anti-Tank (Shaped Charge)
Mine, Anti-Personnel (Fragmentation)
Mine, Anti-Tank (Shaped Charge)
Long Rod Penetrator (APDS / APFSDS)
Anti-Electrical
Leaflet Dispensing
Laser Energy
EMP – Directed
EMP – Omnidirectional

Explosives types (that are converted to TNT equivalents):

HE [kg], TNT (Trinitrotoluene)
HE [kg], HMX
HE [kg], PETN (Pentrite)
HE [kg], RDX (Cyclonite / Hexogen / C4)
HE [kg], C4
HE [kg], Tritonal
HE [kg], Ammonium Nitrate (Ammonite)
HE [kg], Picric Acid / Trinitrophenol / Type 97 (Pertit / Pikrinit / Melinit / Ekrasit / Shimose)
HE [kg], Torpex
HE [kg], Dynamite
HE [kg], PBXN-1XX
HE [kg], AFX-757
HE [kg], Minol-2
HE [kg], H-6
HE [kg], Destex
HE [kg], Minol-1
HE [kg], HBX-1
HE [kg], HBX-3
HE [kg], Hexanite
HE [kg], Dipicrylamine / Hexyl (Hexamine / Hexite / Hexanitrodiphenylamine)
HE [kg], Minol-3
HE [kg], Minol-4
HE [kg], PBX
Incendiary [kg], Napalm
Incendiary [kg], WP
Incendiary [kg], FAE
HEAT Shaped Charge, Light Armor (41-90mm)
HEAT Shaped Charge, Medium Armor (91-140mm)
HEAT Shaped Charge, Heavy Armor (141-200mm)
HEAT Shaped Charge, Special Armor (201-500mm)
Fragmentation [kg], Prefragmented
Continuous Rod [kg]
Nuclear [kT]
Chemical [kg]
Bacteriological [kg]
Submunitions [kg], Anti-Personnel (Fragmentation)
Submunitions [kg], Anti-Tank, Light Armor (41-90mm)
Submunitions [kg], Anti-Tank, Medium Armor (91-140mm)
Submunitions [kg], Anti-Tank, Heavy Armor (141-200mm)
Submunitions [kg], Anti-Tank, Special Armor (201-500mm)
Submunitions [kg], Anti-Runway (Penetrator)
Mine [kg], Anti-Personnel (Fragmentation)
Mine [kg], Anti-Tank, Light Armor (41-90mm)
Mine [kg], Anti-Tank, Medium Armor (91-140mm)
Mine [kg], Anti-Tank, Heavy Armor (141-200mm)
Mine [kg], Anti-Tank, Special Armor (201-500mm)
Long Rod Penetrator, Light Armor (41-90mm)
Long Rod Penetrator, Medium Armor (91-140mm)
Long Rod Penetrator, Heavy Armor (141-200mm)
Long Rod Penetrator, Special Armor (201-500mm)
Anti-Electrical (Conductive Fiber)
Leaflets
Laser Energy [kW]
Kinetic Energy

Sensor Modelling


How are sensors modelled in the simulator?

Sensors work according to their RL counterparts. Radars are affected by factors such as weather, clutter, jamming (true radar equation, incl. propagation loss), line of sight, horizon (incl. surface effect) and others. Likewise for sonar (passive, active, ping intercept), visual and IR sensors, electronic warfare (ESM/ECM) and so on. Some types of sensors like laser designators/rangers and MAD have simpler models.

The radar model takes a great number of factors into account, like frequencies, horizontal and vertical beamwidth, System Noise Level, Processing Gain/Loss, Peak Power, Pulse Width, Blind Time (yes we simulate pulse compression!), PRF, min & max range, min & max altitude, scan interval, range/height/angle resolution, various capabilities such as air/surface/ground/periscope & range/altitude/speed/heading (RASH) info, OTH-B/OTH-SW, pulse-only & early/later doppler with limited/full LDSD, MTI, NCTR, Phased Array continuous target tracking, CW and CWI capability.


Does the weather affect sensors?

Yes, it affects most sensors. Particularly visual & IR but also radar at certain frequencies.

Command’s predecessors, Harpoon 2 and Harpoon 3, had an excellent “random weather generator” with believable variable weather fronts. The problem was that the different weather conditions didn’t really affect sensors/weapons much (e.g. you could drop an LGB in the middle of a tropical storm no problem). The Command 1.04 weather model is simpler in terms of generation/variability but its effects actually impact you. And wait till you see what happens when we activate air-operations being limited by night & bad weather… You will wish you hadn’t asked for weather effects in the simulator!


Does weather affect underwater acoustics as well, or just surface and above?

It affects sonar performance in the surface duct (e.g. shallow sub vs ship or shallow sub vs shallow sub). Once you go below below shallow the weather does not affect you except from the local temperature which affect the strength of the thermal layer.


Radar Info 1How detailed is your radar model?

Click on the screenshots to the right for a full view. They are taken from the Radar Calc MS/Excel sheets that we’ve used to balance out the radar sensors in Command, and should give some clues about the input parameters that we use and also the model’s complexity. Note that stats from public sources are in black, our guessimations are in red. There is only one operating mode per radar set, which is the most typical operating mode. The radar model also has range capping (see Max Rng column) to simulate PRF cutoff and scope limitations.

Radar Info 2The 1980-2015+ database for Command 1.04 contains 1917 (finished) radars and they’ve all been balanced out like this. The 1946-1979 database has a load of earlier sets extinct by 1980. The database editor uses the same Visual Basic sensor code as the simulator and the MS/Excel spreadsheet, and also does a bunch of sample calcs in the database editor itself to make sure the input stats aren’t out of whack.


ESM StatsHow do your ESM / RWR sets work?

There are 698 ESM/RWR systems in the Command 1.04 database. To the right is a screenshot showing range estimations for some ESM sets against five typical radar sets. You can click on the screenshots for a full view. Black stats are from public sources, red are our guesses.

As you can see, high-end ESM/ELINT sets produce some pretty ridiculous range estimates against powerful radars.


ECM StatsWhat is the electronic warfare (ECM) model like?

To the right are some ECM vs radar examples. You can click on the screenshots for a full view. As you can see it is pretty complex. Black stats come from declassified sources, red stats are our guessimations. The effects assume the target radar antenna points directly at the jammer beam. Sidelobe jamming (which Command also simulates) has less effect.

We even developed our very own radar and electronic warfare simulator while building the radar and electronic warfare models for Command. We are considering releasing it to the public so that the players can look at the models in detail, but haven’t had the time to ‘productify’ it yet.


How does stealth work with F-117A Nighthawk, B-2A Spirit, and other stealth aircraft?

Stealth and low-observable aircraft and ships in the database have smaller radar, visual and IR signatures than other units. The simulator uses several different generations of radar stealth and various signature modifiers to produce realistic detection ranges. We also simulate the fact that A to D-band radars are far better at detecting stealth aircraft than E to K-band radars.

The AN/FPS-130 is a D-band long-range air search radar which means it is quite effective against stealth aircraft since the wave length is equal to the aircraft or big fuselage components such as wings or tails. This produces resonance effects which give good radar returns. This is not the case for E to K-band radars, and the effect of LO shaping is much, much higher.


How do Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) radars work?

In Command, LPI radars use their real-life power output (0.1W or 1W) and pulse lengths but have much lower System Noise Levels and better Processing Gain/Loss than conventional sets. We do not simulate the ‘ESM-style analysis techniques’ used by these radars in real life, we adjust the processing gain. As such LPI radars work just like any other radar set except they are counter-detected at much shorter ranges.

RWRs have much smaller antennas than the LPI radars, and thus the LPI has an advantage as it uses signal analysis methods similar to that of ESM gear. That means modern LPIs are often detecting stuff before being counter-detected, and this is also the case in the simulator. For more advanced RWRs and ESM sets the LPI will be picked up at longer ranges


What are your visual and infrared (IR) models like?

Command distinguishes between Detection, Classification, and Identification. Visual detection and classification/identification signatures are based on physical size and various Visual/IR modifiers such as High-Viz, Retro Camo, Low-Viz Camo, etc. However the aircraft’s color only has limited impact on detection range except fluorcent colors. Typical classification ranges for high-viz civilian aircraft is ca 8nm while for low-viz aircraft it is ca 5nm. For visual sensors it is actually the _length_ of the aircraft has the largest impact on detection range.

In contrast to earlier games, anti-air missiles and small ASM/AGMs can not be visually classified by type in Command. So there are no more ‘Incoming AIM-9M-5 Mod 4 Build 3 Block A-2/63’ messages.

There is much talk about using IRST sensors to counter stealth. But in reality IRST sensors have relatively short range due to the fact that IR radiation is absorbed very quickly by the atmosphere. As such it is a great tool to help improve short/medium-range situational awareness as it has a much wider FOV than the radar, but it certainly isn’t a long-range anti-stealth sensor! This fact is of course also reflected in Command.

Command also handles contrails. The effects of these can be demonstrated through the following example: Three A-4M Skyhawks are overflying a ground observer using Mk1 Eyeball as search sensor. One Skyhawk is at 1000ft, one at 25000ft and one at 36000ft.

* The lowest is detected at ca 2.1-1.8nm slant range and classified as a A-4 Skyhawk at ca 0.8-1.0nm slant range.
* The middle aircraft is not detected as it is too far away / too small.
* The highest Skyhawk creates a contrail and is detected at a considerable distance, and thus is the first of the three to be detected. The ground observer can determine the size of the contrail (small/medium/large) but can never see the actual aircraft nor classify it as an A-4 Skyhawk.

TECHNICAL DETAILS: Contrails will only form at altitudes greater than 8000m, and at temperatures below -40 deg C. The simulator has a ‘standard atmosphere’ model that checks if the temperature is lower than 233 deg Kelvin at the aircraft’s current altitude.

The simulator uses the aircraft’s ‘Visual Size Class’ to determine the size of the contrail, and thus detection range. The detection range also depends on time-of-day and cloud cover.
– Very Large: 50nm
– Large: 30nm
– Medium: 20nm
– Small: 10nm


Are snorkelling subs visible to radar?

Yes, the periscope can be detected by radars that have the ability to search for periscopes (not many of them).


What weapon guidance types are modelled in the simulator?

Command has a comprehensive set of weapon guidance logics. There are 15 types, each with specialized handling. These are:

Semi-Active (SARH, SALH)
Inertial Plus Semi-Active (INS + SARH, INS + SALH)
Datalink Plus Semi-Active (DL + SARH)
Passive (ARM, IR)
Inertial Plus Passive (INS + ARM, INS + IR)
Datalink Plus Passive (DL + ARM)
Active (ARH)
Inertial Plus Active (INS + ARH)
Datalink Plus Active (DL + ARH)
Command-Guided / Datalinked
Track-Via-Missile (TVM)
Beam Riding
Inertial (INS, INS + GPS)
Semi-Active Plus Active (SARH + ARH)
Timeshared Semi-Active Plus Active (TSARH + ARH)

In addition, the simulator has complex activation point/target overshoot/illumination geometry issues/redetection/retargeting logics & associated target prioritizing.

Some weapons combine guidance types. For example the SM-2MR Blk IIIB is datalinked with semi-active terminal illumination and a backup IR seeker. The missile is fired at a non-cooperative fighter target. The weapon flies lead-pursuit to the kill box and will request target illumination from an AN/SPG-62 ca 5 sec from impact. In extreme cases the fighter may be able to maneouver enough to make the SARH seeker go blind due to target-missile-illuminator geometry issues. In this case the AEGIS system will order the missile to switch to IR seeker and go autonomous – freeing up a an illuminator and a datalink channel, and allowing the system to fire another weapon. The SM-2MR is now a pure-IR homing weapon.


A SARH-guided missile flew to the target and hit, but the target was outside the radar’s search arc. Why?

The radar “wedge” being displayed on the map represents the _search_ scan limits of the shooter’s radar. The _illumination_ angle limits of the radar are actually a bit wider than that (this is not a game cheat, it’s RL practice), to allow the shooter to jink while guiding the missile and thus mess up the kinematic calculations of a counter-shot. (Yes, our AAW expert is a real stickler for detail.). Hence the jinking that you observed.

If the shooter is forced to “flinch” and breakaway out of the azimuth limits in order to evade an attack, you will notice a time value (in seconds) next to the weapon(s) being guided. This indicates that the weapon is “blind”. Once a pure-SARH weapon like the Sparrow goes blind for 5 seconds or more, it self-destructs.


How do you calculate horizon limitations?

We’re not using 3.57*(sqrt(h1)+sqrt(h2)) or 4.12*Sqrt(h) textbook approximations. We use earth radius, tangent angle, etc to calculate surface angle etc etc.


How do you simulate Look-Down/Shoot-Down (LD/SD) limitations on older aircraft radars?

Older radar sets without LD/SD capabilities can detect targets at a downwards angle of 5 degrees. Radars with limited LD/SD have a 15 degree limitation, and modern radars have no limitations at all.

The AN/APQ-120 radar fitted to F-4E Phantoms have limited LD/SD capabilities. A F-4E patrolling at 40 000 feet (ca 12 km) will therefore be able to detect a MiG-23 flying Nap-of-Earth (NoE) at a distance of 35nm since the downwards angle is roughly 12 degrees. This is within the 15 degree limitation of the radar.


How do you model ‘looking through a straw’ limitations for long-range TCS?

In earlier naval/aerial warfare sims such as Harpoon, aircraft like the F-14 Tomcat with its TCS (TV Camera Set) would detect, classify and identify ANY aircraft at ranges up to ca 70nm. This doesn’t make much sense but was a result of both severe sensor model limitations and AI limitations, with the AI refusing to fire at unidentified targets and thus nulling the AIM-54’s range advantage. The TCS retained its 70nm range even with the radar turned off, and so the F-14 could fire AIM-54s silently at stealthy F-22s from 70nm out! And the wide 90-deg FOV of the TCS didn’t exactly help improve realism. This, in turn, meant that playing the opposing side was often very frustrating since there was nowhere to hide, resulting in less experienced players resorting to ridiculous ‘cheatos’ tactics.

Thankfully, Command has configurable doctrines that allows the AI to automatically engage unknown contacts (FREE FIRE!) which in turn would allow Command to simulate visual detections far more realistically. But how should air-to-air detection & classification in Command be handled? Lets start with some facts:

BASIC FACT 1: Binoculars and high-magnification TV camera sets can help identify aircraft at long ranges. However, searching for air contacts with these sets is like “looking through a straw”, and RL experience shows that this kind of search produces long scan times due to the narrow field of view. In turn, this means that that detection ranges with high-magnification visual sensors are very close (and in some cases even shorter!) than what the human Mk1 Eyeball can produce. In fact, a ground observer with a binocular with a 2x zoom would, depending on source, detect the target at 0.9 to 1.1 times the range of the naked eye. And even the best systems would very rarely produce detection ranges greater than two times the human eye.

BASIC FACT 2: Many IR/Visual sensors/turrets are not used for target search due to their narrow FOV. These are typically used with fire control systems. Other sensors have wide FOVs and are used exclusively for situational awareness and early warning, and not for fire control. Most sets also have multiple FOVs with high/low magnification levels; typically low magnification for target acquisition, and high for target classification, identification and tracking.

These facts are also covered by the Command sensor models. All visual sensors and imaging IR sensors have two magnification (zoom) levels, one for general target search and one for classification of already detected targets. As such there is a clear split of roles between dual-role search/fire-control sensors, general search-only sensors, and fire-control-only sensors. The visual Search Magnification is typically 1x to 2x, with 2.3x being the highest search magnification level in Command. This means that, if a plane is detectable at 3nm with the naked eye, it will never be detected at more than 6nm using a TCS. The Classification Magnification is typically 2x to 40x, with 43x being the highest magnification level in the Command database. Some sensors like space object classification cameras have higher zoom levels, ditto for the special 80x detailed target classification & identification camera on the AC-130U, and a handful others.

Special rules apply for imaging IRST sets, which will detect targets at longer ranges but identify them (granted they have imaging IR capabilities) at relatively short ranges. In addition, IR sets like early-gen IRSTs and Line Scanners are not imaging and thus have no Classification zoom as they cannot classify targets.

So how does Command compare to RL observed behavior? Lets take a look at a handful sensors, their stats, and the expected detection & classification ranges against small and large contacts:

Typical magnification levels:

F-14 TCS: 10x
Original LANTIRN: 8x
Modernized LANTIRN: 20x (as such, from 1998 onwards the F-14 Bombcat crews actually used their LANTIRN pod to identify air targets rather than the 15-20 year old TCS as the LANTIRN was a day & night sensor, had twice the range, and offered a clearer picture of the target!)
Sniper: 30x (very impressive!)
ATFLIR: 30x
Original Maverick missile seeker: 2x

From declassified sources we know the typical detection ranges for the Mk1 Eyeball against a given targets at a given aspects. Say 3nm head-on vs MiG-23, 12nm vs B-52, etc. We also know the Classification ranges against the same types: 1.5nm for MiG-23 and 4nm for B-52. The F-14’s TCS classification range against the MiG-23 is 14nm and B-52 40nm.

When we put an F-14, B-52 and MiG-23 into a Command scenario and press Play the following will happen:

SCENARIO 1: The F-14’s radar is turned off and the aircraft is 30 deg off-angle from the contacts. The contacts are outside the TCS’s search arc and are detected and classified by the Mk1 Eyeball at normal ranges: ca 3nm / 1.5nm for MiG-23 and ca 12nm / 4nm for the B-52.

SCENARIO 2: The F-14’s radar is turned off and the contacts are within the TCS’s search arc. The contacts are detected at up to twice their normal range. Once detected, the F-14 automatically switches the TCS to high magnification mode and immediately identify the contacts. As such, detection and classification ranges are identical: ca 6nm / 6nm for the MiG-23 and ca 24 nm / 24nm for the B-52.

SCENARIO 3: The F-14 operates as normal, using its radar. The MiG-23 is detected by the radar at ca 125nm and the B-52 at ca 180nm. The TCS is slaved to the radar and uses max magnification. The TCS sensor will classify the MiG-23 at ca 14nm and the B-52 at ca 40nm.


What is a semi-active seeker, and how do they work in the simulator?

Semi-active seekers home in on radar or laser energy reflected from the target. An illuminator is a type of radar or laser that paints a target with energy for the weapons to home in on. Basically an illuminator is a big bright light that other weapons know to track.

Illuminators require line-of-sight to the target and are limited by the horizon, so if planet earth is between you and it, you cannot fire your weapon. Worse, laser illuminators cannot see through fog or clouds, which makes Laser Guided Bombs (LGBs) useless in these conditions.

Illuminators are automatically turned on in the simulator when Semi-Active Radar Homing (SARH) or Semi-Active Laser Homing (SALH) weapons are fired.

Illuminator beams are displayed as a broken red line leading from shooter to target. To display these, go to Map Settings -> Illumination Vectors, and set them to be displayed for the selected unit, all units or none by clicking on your choice in the menu. The option is set to None by default to reduce the clutter on the display.

For further information, please visit the Missile Guidance article on Wikipedia.

Scenario Editing


How do you determine Complexity and Difficulty

The complexity and difficulty level for a scenario is subjective. Difficulty is how hard a given scenario is. Complexity is how many units are in the scenario and the nuances of the victory conditions.


What are the ‘Single Unit Airfields’ in the database, and how do I use them?

The Single Unit Airfields are “all in one” units. You would normally use them for air bases that are not targets and are generally the preferred unit to use as the number of active units in a scenario does impact game speed.

If you’d like to build an airbase from scratch you must have at least 1 runway unit, 1 access point or taxiway, 1 unit A/C holding unit (tarmac, A/C revetment, open parking space, hanger etc), 1 Ammo holding unit (ammo dump, ammo revetment, ammo pad) and at least one fuel facility (AvGas, not really active as per Command v1.04 but should be there). The manual covers airbase construction and deconstruction in detail.


Is there an upper limit to the number of units I can have in a scenario?

The number of units that the simulator engine can handle is almost unlimited (a few billions), however the core calcs aren’t cheating as much as in earlier games and/or simulators so the more stuff you add the more calcs need to be done. Performance is also affected by units plotting complex nav paths, a lot of long-range sensors, lots of jammers, etc, etc.


Why should I include ‘unavailable’ aircraft in my scenario?

Aircraft stuck on the ground are part of the unit compliment and portray real life operations, and should always be included in scenarios. Aircraft that are grounded for extended maintenance or have stood down due to pilot availability or doctrine will still take up valuable hangar/revetment space. They also often pose valuable assets for protection or, from the enemy’s point of view, for destruction. If the ‘unavailable’ aircraft were not included in a scenario because they were “useless”, three things would happen:

1) The aircraft management scren would de-clutter somewhat (not significantly though, when you’re carefully managing air assets).
2) Your operational aircraft would have unrealistic availability of air facilities.
3) The grounded aircraft would not be able to be used as scenario targets.

So in effect, setting aircraft to ‘unavailable’ is a way of occupying hangar capacity without providing all aircraft for operations (which never happens in real life) as well as providing the other side targets.


I selected a carrier group and added aircraft, and some were distributed to destroyers. Why?

If you select to add multiple ships then the simulator will spread the aircraft among them. The solution is to switch to Unit View, select the aircraft carrier, and add the aircraft on a per-ship basis.


Do I need to fill aviation magazines with drop tanks, sonobuoys and gun ammo?

No. Drop tanks, sonobuoys and gun ammo are ‘free’, i.e. in unlimited supply. You do not have to worry about their quantities, and here is no point in adding them to aviation magazines.


How can I find out what a particular aircraft carrier type’s normal complement of aircraft is?

There are many web sites where this info is at. For US Navy carriers we can strongly recommend the Go Navy site:


What about CVBG ship composition? Any good suggestions for that?

Often, ships would join and leave a battlegroup during a work-up and cruise, so the ships that started a deployment may not necessarily be the same that completed the deployment. For a general idea of what deployed with a battlegroup, one creative idea is to look up the cruise book of the carrier in question. Usually, there is a battlegroup photo near the front of the book. You can ID the type and number of ships from the photo (although not the name). In 1985-87 Commander, Cruiser-Destroyer Group 8 was the embarked flag on USS SARATOGA, so you could also research what the assigned ships were for Cruiser-Destroyer Group 8 at that particular time.

Today, CVBGs typically deploy with a CG and 3-4 DDGs. Probably an SSN attached to it, too. The trick is that if there’s no real or perceived threat, only the CG will typically stick with the CVN. The DDGs and SSNs might be scattered all across the place. Ditto with PHIBRONs – the LHD might be 2000 miles away from the LSD and 1000 miles away from the LPD that it sailed with. They typically only come together for contingency ops and collective MEU training. I’m not even sure if an ARG deploys with a DDG anymore.

The battlegroup photo is normally early in the cruise book. For instance, the image below is from the USS Saratoga 1987 cruisebook.

Also, try googling “Command History” with the ship name or the embarked flag’s command, for instance “COMGRUDESGRU EIGHT” “COMMAND HISTORY” The Naval History Command website may also be useful.

Good links:
Cruise Books
BatGru Nomenclature


If I add sensor, mount, etc to a unit in a scenario, will those modifications survive a database update?

Command lets you tweak individual platforms by adding and deleting weapons and sensors. Like, filling up ammo dumps on airfields, changing the VLS loadouts on ships, or updating submarine torpedo magazines.

But because these changes will be erased when you update the scenario to a new version of the database, the simulator lets you save any changes you have made to a special .ini file (using the Editor -> SBR -> Generate Delta Template command). This file contains all deviation from the database including any change in magazines.

When applied to a scenario, the file will restore the changes you made even after the updated scenario has been scrubbed by the new version of the database. This is covered in detail in the manual.

So every time you create a scenario you should also create an .ini file. Then add that to the scenario zip file so people can rebuild the scenario if they have to.


Is there a way show cities on the map?

You can insert a facility called ‘Marker (City)’ and rename as needed.


How much aircraft ordnance should I put in a typical ammunition shelter?

Ammunition is typically stored by explosive class and type, at least in the West. So for a simple example seperate-loaded artillery projectiles (usually 150 mm or larger) are stored separately from propellants and both are in different locations than the fuzes. Big exception for fixed or semi-fixed ammunition which is packaged in single-round units but may also have several complete rounds to a box and multiple boxes per pallet. The big delimiter is NEQ or Net Explosive Quantity, a value that varies between nations and is based on explosive type and weight. NEQ governs how much can be stored in a single space and the distance between storage platforms or buildings. The aim is to prevent sympathetic detonation should one space detonate high-order due to accident or attack. Bombs and fuzes are stored in separate buildings or bunkers and any guidance units or fins are stored separately as non-explosive components.

So the question is a bit like asking “How big is a balloon?” and the answer is always “It depends”. The NEQ storage rules apply to NATO or are at least NATO standard and are generally rigidly enforced in fixed installations, at least in theory. So pretty much any outlay you want can be “accurate” as CMANO allows your ammo bunkers to be whatever you want them to be without messing about with explosive classes, NEQ’s and safe distances.

To the right is a satellite image from Google Earth of a moderate-sized ammunition depot storing all types of non-nuclear munitions. Click for full-size view. It measures about 5-km north-south and is about half that from east-west. Each building or structure will hold a specific explosive class (or compatible mix of classes according to storage regulations) and are frequently separated from their neighbour by a berm to deflect the shock wave of a high-order blast. A building should only hold an NEQ that will prevent sympathetic detonation of the magazine next door in the event of accident or attack. Rail lines run down the east side and the ammunition assembly buildings are off the screen to the south. Note to that there are bunkers and above-ground shelters on the northern part of the magazine area and that the individual building tend to be long and narrow as another aid to limit catastrophic propagation of a detonation.

For example, before you can determine how many Mk-83 bombs can be placed into a single magazine you need to know many details that the game cannot provide such as:

  • Type of magazine – Above ground concrete or open storage or earthen bunker or underground bunker or hardened shelter etc.
  • Berms or no berms separating the individual magazine structures
  • Safety distance from – similar or nearby magazines, civilian structures, POL, military facilities etc.

Only with this information does it become possible to determine the NEQ (also known as NEW for Net Explosive Weight) that can be stored in the structure. The calculation of NEQ that can be stored always comes before the item to be stored so suppose that we calculate that the single magazine can store an NEQ of 4000 lbs. A single Mk-83 Mod 4 bomb has an NEQ of 445 so our hypothetical magazine can safely store 8-bombs (4000/445= 8.989 rounded down to 8).

For a Mk-82 Mod 4 the NEQ is 180 and so instead of 8 x Mk-83s, the same magazine can store 22 x Mk-82 bombs (4000/180=22.22 rounded down to 22) or for that matter 195 x Hellfire rocket motors waiting to be mated to their warhead and guidance components.

Ammo storage is a logistical problem rather than an operational one requiring literally thousands of pages of rules and regulations covering a vast number of ammunition items and contingencies that only the most fanatical of rivet-counters would want more details than CMANO already provides. Particularly since any scenario would really not benefit from additional complexity in the way ammo storage is already modelled. The above figures come from a 1990 ammo catalogue but it is unlikely that the values have changed too much in the intervening decades.

You can also lower the NEQ by cladding to provide insulation in the event of fire, something the USN learned well before the 1967 Forrestal disaster but somehow managed to forget. This is the principle reason why some naval ordnance will have a lower NEQ than its Air Force equivalent.


Is there some sort of “standard” aircraft complements for different ships in the database?

Not at the moment. However if you feel like taking on the task of compiling the necessary data we can provide you with a list of all the ships in the database in an XLS sheet. Then you can add the ‘standard’ or ‘typical’ helicopter/aircraft to each, and once finished we can add these to the database and update the sim GUI.

Should be a pretty straightforward job really, but need to check that the helicopter torpedo/missile magazines match up with those on the ship. I.e. a 2008 version of a Burke carries a correct version of the Seahawk, etc.


How do I put pictures in the scenario summary or briefing?

In Command 1.04 the simplest way to add a picture in the briefing is to have it fetched from a web-public address. We are working on a better system but it may take a while.

Alternatively, you can use a data URI instead of a link in the href field. Go to here, upload your image, run the process, and then take the base64 result and put it into the href field in the editor.


How can I convert Google Earth Placemarks to Installation (INST) files in Command?

You can use the KML-to-INST tool. For more information please go here. The subject is also covered in the manual.


How can I fit a ship with future weapons loadout like LRASM?

In the Weapons window, add 0/29, 0/32, 0/61 or 0/64 weapon records to the mounts, depending on the number of VLS cells. Then load the number of weapons you want.


Can I add laser guns to my futuristic Arleigh Burke?¨

Yes you can, there are several laser cannons in the database already. Add the mount(s) through the Weapons window.


How were Soviet Red Banner Naval Aviation naval bomber regiments organized??

There were usually 3 squadrons per regiment; two bomber squadrons of 10-11 aircraft each, and one electronic attack squadron of 6-10 aircraft each.


How should I name aircraft?

Aircraft in Command are handled on an individual level, with each unit having its own callsign. It is recommended to use the squadron/regiment’s name and aircraft number / tail code as callsign. It is also recommended to use the RL number/code. In cases where the number/code is not available, use generic numbering, i.e. #01, #02. The standard naming convention is as follows:

F-14A Tomcat on USS Ranger, Carrier Air Wing Nineteen CVW-2, tail code ‘NE’, squadron VF–1 Wolfpack, aircraft number 101:
VF–1 Wolfpack, NE-101

RF-8G Crusader on USS Oriskany, Carrier Air Wing Nineteen CVW-19, tail code ‘NM’, squadron VFP-63 Eyes of the Fleet, detachment 10, aircraft number 601:
VFP-63 Eyes of the Fleet, Det 10, NM-601

SH-2F Seasprite on USS Cook, a helicopter detachment from HSL-37 Easy Riders, aircraft number 31 (the aircraft number is known, so use ’31’ rather than ‘#01’:
HSL-37 Easy Riders, Det, 31

P-3C Orion from VP-48 Boomers, aircraft #01 (no number/tailcode is known, so use generic ‘#01’):
VP-48 Boomers #01

F-15C Eagle from 43rd Tactical Fighter Squadron, aircraft #05 (no number/tailcode is known, so use generic ‘#05’):
43rd TFS #05

Su-27 Flanker B from the first squadron of the 611 Fighter Regiment (IAP) of the Soviet air defence force (PVO), aircraft number 10:
611 IAP PVO, 1 Sqn #10

Tu-16K-10-26P Badger C Mod from the second squadron of the 987 Naval Missile-Carrying Regiment at Severomorsk-1, aircraft number 4:
987 MRAP, 2 Sqn #04

Ka-27PL Helix A on Udaloy, of the Soviet Northern Fleet’s 830 Independent Anti-submarine Helicopter Regiment, Detachment A, aircraft number 01:
830 OKPLVP, Det A #01

Sea Harrier FRS.1 on HMS Invincible, No. 801 Naval Air Squadron (NAS), aircraft #04 (note ‘No.’ prefix):
No. 801 NAS #04

Lynx HAS.3 on HMS Battleaxe, No. 849 Naval Air Squadron (NAS), Detachment B, aircraft #01 (note ‘No.’ prefix):
No. 849 NAS, Det B #01

Nimrod MR.2P on RAF Kinloss, No. 120 Squadron, aircraft #04 (note ‘No.’ prefix):
No. 120 Sqn #04

Norwegian F-104G from Bodø Air Base, 334 Sqn, aircraft #05:
334 Sqn #05

Norwegian NH90 NFH helicopter on HNoMS Fridtjof Nansen, 334 Squadron, Detachment A, aircraft #01:
334 Sqn, Det A #01


How many sides can I create?
A scenario can have an almost unlimited number of sides. However, since each side needs to maintain separate contact lists, exchange data with allies (if any), etc, each additional side will have a significant impact on game speed. It is therefore recommended to use as few sides as possible to ensure highest possible game speed.

For neutral / civilian sides that take no active part in the scenario (i.e. shoot stuff up), make sure to set the awareness level to ‘Blind’ to skip sensor calculations and targeting logics. It is also recommended to uncheck ‘Collective Responsibility’ for these sides so that the action of one civilian unit (e.g. a pirate) will not unleash a barrage of missiles on the other civilian units.

Database Editing


Does the simulator come with a database editor?

There are pros and cons in supporting third-party databases for a simulator that is being actively maintained by the developer. Our current view is that the disadvantages are more profound. So Command does not come with a database editor.

The ability to modify a database has been taken from a stand-alone programs and integrated into the Scenario Editor. You can customise platforms in the scenarios by adding/removing mounts, magazines, sensors and comms gear as well as changing weapon types and quantities, but you aren’t able to add units or otherwise edit the database. This gives you the ability to do some new nifty things e.g. stick a Club-K container on an innocent merchant ship. And there is nothing stopping you (well, except common sense) to equip a Perry-class frigate with the SS-N-19 complement normally reserved for a Kirov. The scenario design section of the manual explains how you can do this either through the editor or via templates.

There are many reasons why databases in Command are not directly editable.

First and foremost we did not want to repeat the database mess/confusion observed in Harpoon. The scenario authors handled more than their fair share of support mails on database/scenario mismatches for that game. So for Command we wanted to shift all focus to scenarios. Command is pretty much a ‘scenario sandbox’ that started out as a scenario editor and evolved into a simulator. Everyone on the Command development team have a long history of scenario design behind them, mainly for Harpoon2/3, and we wanted to make the ultimate scenario editor for ourselves and other naval war gaming fans out there – without the noisy database element.

As such, in Command there is no need to copy/overwrite database files or edit configuration files, followed by odd behaviour and crashes if database and scenarios don’t match one hundred percent. Command scenarios know exactly what database they were built with based on the database’s checksum (!), and a scenario will pick the right database upon load. We have received much positive feedback on this solution, as the players only have to care about what scenario to play rather than worrying about whether the scenario will crash with the currently installed database or not.

Second, the database for Command is very complex. Anyone who has spent time in the Harpoon2/3 database editor will immediately notice the increased number of parameters when they look in the Command DB Viewer. Editing or leaving out the wrong parameter could have rather negative impact on gameplay, generating a ton of unnecessary support tickets for the developer.

Third, having multiple user-created databases makes continued expansion of Command far more difficult. Any schema changes would also have to be applied (correctly!) to any 3rd party databases, each of which may or may not have been abandoned by its author at that point in time. There would also be the risk of making associated material (scenarios) unusable. The Command database schema & enum tables are updated regularly and keeping all database hobbyists up-to-date would be a monstrous task, both on the dev end and on the 3rd party end. It would not take many weeks (or days!) before a new db author simply would give up.


Where can I submit my request for a new platform (aircraft, ship, submarine, facility, weapon, etc)?

The databases contain something like 10,000 platforms but if you still need a new platform for a scenario that you’re working on feel free to give us a pling. Preferably with links to information from reliable sources.

You can request new 1946-1979 (Cold War) platforms here.

And 1980-2020+ (DB3000) platforms here.

Please note that in order to add a new platform we need adequate data to model them with. There’s a lot of pull from the community for access to emerging systems to play with as well as an expectation for technical accuracy. Having both (early access and full fidelity) is a knife edge to negotiate, and fancy new toys will often go through several complete rebuilds as more information gradually becomes avaiable.

We are also quite selective about which hypothetical platforms we add.


There is an error in the platforms database. What can I do about it?

If you think you’ve found an error in the 1980-2020+ (DB3000) database, please report it here. If the error is in the 1946-1979 (Cold War) database, please report it here.


Where are the Colonial Wars Database (CWDB) and the DB3000 Database?

The databases are already installed on your system. Updated databases are released with the regular game upgrades.


Why was 1979 selected for the end of the Cold War Database rather than 1989?

1979 was in many ways a watershed year with the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the Iranian Revolution beginning to change superpower dynamics and the Cold War’s end game unknowingly commenced. 1980 would see the Reagan era and the biggest peacetime military build up in history unfolding.

By the time the Cold War ended, much of the hardware was technologically mature and the current setup demonstrates this nicely. Each covers roughly thirty-years, about as long as a professional career in the armed forces of the given periods.

Also, there is platform overlap built into both databases so from a user standpoint when one database ends and the other begins is pretty much irrelevant. Also, ne mother of a database from 1946 to near future is too big for one guy so Paul Bridge cover the 1946-1979 time frame and Ragnar Emsoy covers from 1980 onwards. Mike is working on both databases and is the land combat element expert.


I cannot find Charles de Gaulle carrier (of France) in the DB. Why?

There are in fact several entries in the database for the ship, representing different refits. Maybe you are playing a 1946-1979 scenario and are looking for the ship in the wrong platform database? Load a scenario that use the 1980-2020+ platform database and you should find the ship.


How can I add images to the database and write platform descriptions?

The top line of each database entry in the Database Viewer has a number at the beginning (#1234). This is the platforms’ unique identification number.

Now an example for the chilean PCFG LM 30 Casma. The Number for this ship is #1701, so you have to put a image of it in the database image folder as follows:
[Path_to_COMMAND_game_folder]\DB\Images\DB3000\Ship_1701.jpg

The Database Viewer will support up to seven photos: one main photo that scales with the size of the window, and two rows of three smaller photos. The Database Viewer will auto-detect the number of photos available and position them accordingly. It will look for files named as follows:

[type]_[id].jpg (main photo)
[type]_[id]_t1.jpg (thumbnail 1, optional)
[type]_[id]_t2.jpg (ditto)
[type]_[id]_t3.jpg (etc)
[type]_[id]_t4.jpg
[type]_[id]_t5.jpg
[type]_[id]_t6.jpg

For the description you create a .txt file with the description in it and save it to
[Path_to_COMMAND_game_folder]\DB\Descriptions\DB3000\Ship_1701.txt

Now you have image and description for this ship in your DB3000 database.

For the other types use:
Aircraft_[number].jpg / Aircraft_[number].txt,
Submarine_[number].jpg / Submarine_[number].txt and
Facility_[number].jpg / Facility_[number].txt

Lastly, most other players out there would love to have the same photos and descriptions you have added. And since there are tens of thousands of objects in the database it makes sense to share this with the community. But for this one had to respect the copyrights of the images and description texts. On Wikipedia the most images are applicable by mentioning the creator. There is some info about the conditions for using them under the images.


How extensive is the nuclear weapons database?

You can easily you build something like the old game DefCon or SPIs World War 3. Here is a list of the nuclear weapons included in the 1980-2020+ database. Ca 180 in Command v1.o4, and new ones are added regularly. The 1946-1979 database also has a large number of weapons not present in the 1980+ database, which starts literally from (and including) Little Boy and Fat Man.

Here is a quick demonstration of Command’s strategic nuclear warfare capabilities.

53-58 Gyro [NATO 53-59N, 15kT Nuclear] — 1961, Submarine, November
53-65N Gyro [NATO 53-68N, 20kT Nuclear] — 1971, Submarine
65-73 Gyro [20kT Nuclear] — 1975-91
AGM-129A ACM [150kT Nuclear] — 1993-2006
AGM-69A SRAM [200kT Nuclear] — 1973-1993
AGM-86B ALCM [200kT Nuclear] — 1983-1992
AN.22 Bomb [60kT Nuclear] — 1968-1988
AN.52 Bomb [25kT Nuclear] — 1973-92
AS-15 Kent A [Kh-55, 200kT Nuclear] — 1984, Tu-95MS-6
AS-15 Kent B [Kh-55SM, 200kT Nuclear] — 1987, Tu-95MS-16
AS-16 Kickback [Kh-15, 200kT Nuclear]
AS-2 Kipper [K-10SD, ASM, 200kT Nuclear] — 1967, Tu-16K-10D, LR Hi-Alt
AS-2 Kipper [K-10SDV, ASM, 200kT Nuclear] — Tu-16K-10D, LR Low-Alt, Operational
AS-2 Kipper [K-10SNB, ASM, 200kT Nuclear] — 1963?, Tu-16K-10N, SR Low-Alt, Operational
AS-3 Kangaroo [Kh-20M, ASM, 800kT Nuclear]
AS-4 Kitchen A Mod 1 [Kh-22PG ASM, 200kT Nuclear] — 1968, Tu-22K
AS-4 Kitchen A Mod 2 [Kh-22M ASM, 350kT Nuclear] — 1976, Tu-22M-2, Tu-22KD
AS-4 Kitchen A Mod 3 [Kh-22N ASM, 350kT Nuclear] — 1983? Tu-22M-2/3
AS-4 Kitchen B Mod 1 [Kh-22PSI INS, 200kT Nuclear] — 1971, Tu-22K
AS-4 Kitchen B Mod 2 [Kh-22MA INS+TERCOM, 350kT Nuclear] — 1976, Tu-22M-2, Tu-22KD
AS-4 Kitchen B Mod 3 [Kh-22NA INS+TERCOM, 350kT Nuclear] — 1983? Tu-22M-2/3
AS-4 Kitchen C Mod 1 [Kh-22P ARM, 200kT Nuclear] — Tu-22KP/KPD, Flawed
AS-4 Kitchen C Mod 2 [Kh-22MP ARM, 350kT Nuclear] — 1980, Tu-22KP/KPD, Limited Service
AS-4 Kitchen C Mod 3 [Kh-22NP ARM, 350kT Nuclear] — Not Adopted, Tu-22M-2/3
AS-5 Kelt [KSR-2M, ASM, 1mT Nuclear] — 1972
AS-6 Kingfish A Mod 1 [KSR-5, ASM, 350kT Nuclear] — 1971, Tu-16K-26/10-26
AS-6 Kingfish A Mod 2 [KSR-5N, ASM, 350kT Nuclear] — 1973, Tu-16K-10-26N
AS-6 Kingfish A Mod 3 [KSR-5M, ASM, 350kT Nuclear] — 1976, Tu-16K-26PM
ASMP [300kT Nuclear] — 1987
ASMP-A [300kT Nuclear] — 2011
B-28 Strategic Bomb [1.45mT Nuclear] — 1958-1991
B-43 Strategic Bomb [1mT Nuclear] — 1962-1991
B-53 Strategic Bomb [9mT Nuclear] — 1953
B-57 Multipurpose Sub Bomb [20kT Nuclear] — Aerial
B-57 Multipurpose Surface Bomb [20kT Nuclear] — 1965
B-61 Tactical/Strategic Bomb [340kT Nuclear] — 1968
B-83 Strategic Bomb [1.2 mT Nuclear] — 1984
BGM-109G Tomahawk GLCM [W80-0 200kT Nuclear]
China Type 639-6 Strategic Bomb [3.3mT Nuclear]
Depth Charge [10kT Nuclear] — Aerial
Depth Charge [15kT Nuclear] — Aerila
Depth Charge [20kT Nuclear] — Aerial
Depth Charge [5kT Nuclear]
Depth Charge [Aerial, 80kT Nuclear]
DF-2 [12kT Nuclear, CSS-1] — 1969-1982
DF-21 [500kT Nuclear, CSS-5 Mod-1] — Not Operational
DF-21A [500kT Nuclear, CSS-5 Mod-2] — 1997
DF-3 [3mT Nuclear, CSS-2] — 1972
DF-31A [1.0mT Nuclear, CSS-9 Mod-2] — 2008
DF-3A [3mT Nuclear, CSS-2 Mod-2] — 1989
DF-4 [3mT Nuclear, CSS-3] — 1981
DF-5 [3mT Nuclear, CSS-4 Mod-1] — 1982
DF-5A [4 MIRV x 350kT Nuclear, CSS-4 Mod-2] — 1987
FRAS-1 [RPK-1 Vikhr, 5kT Nuclear] — 1969
FROG-7a [9M21, 20kT Nuclear] — R-65, R-70, 9K52 Luna-M
Hatf 4 [150kT Nuclear, Shaheen 1] — 2004
Hatf 6 [150kT Nuclear, Shaheen 2] — 2009
Hatf 7 [150kT Nuclear, Babur] — Pakistan, 2006, Cruise Missile
Jericho 1 [20kT Nuclear] — 1974
Jericho 2 [1mT Nuclear] — 1991
Jericho 3 [1mT Nuclear] — 2011
JL-1 [500kT Nuclear, CSS-N-3] — 1988
JL-2 [1mT Nuclear, CSS-N-4] — 2007
Kh-102 [200kT Nuclear] — 2011
LGM-118A Peacekeeper [W87 400kT Nuclear] — 1987-2005
LGM-25C Titan II [W53 9mT Nuclear] — 1964-1987
LGM-30F Minuteman II [W56 1.2mT Nuclear] — 1966-1993
LGM-30G Minuteman III [3 MIRV x W62 170kT Nuclear] — 1971
LGM-30G Minuteman III [3 MIRV x W78 335kT Nuclear] — 1983
LGM-30G Minuteman III [W87 400kT Nuclear] — 2009
M1/TN41 [1mT Nuclear] — 1971
M2/TN41 [1mT Nuclear] — 1975
M20/TN60 [1.2mT Nuclear] — 1978
M45/TN75 [6 MIRV x 150kT Nuclear] — 1998
M4A/TN70 [6 MRV x 100kT Nuclear] — 1986
M4B/TN71 [6 MRV x 150kT Nuclear]
M51/TN75 [6 MIRV x 150kT Nuclear] — 2011
MGM-31B Pershing IA [W50 400kT Nuclear] — 1971-1991
MGM-31C Pershing II [W85 50kT Nuclear] — 1985-1989
MGM-52C Lance [100kT Nuclear] — 1974-1992
Popeye Turbo [20kT Nuclear] — Israel, Submarine
RGM-109A Tomahawk TLAM-N [W80-0 200kT Nuclear] — 1985-1991
RIM-2D Terrier [W45-0 1kT Nuclear] — SAM-N-7 BT-3A(N)
RIM-8B Talos [W30 5kT Nuclear] — 1960, SAM-N-6bW
RIM-8D Talos [W30 5kT Nuclear] — 1961, SAM-N-6bW1
RIM-8E Talos [W30 5kT Nuclear] — 1963, SAM-N-6c1 Unified, SARH
RN-24 Tactical Bomb [10kT Nuclear] — Russia, Su-24
RN-28 Tactical Bomb [1kT Nuclear] — Russia, 8U49, Su-24
RN-30 Strategic Bomb [200kT Nuclear] — Russia
RN-32 Strategic Bomb [200kT Nuclear] — Russia
RN-40 Tactical Bomb [30kT Nuclear] — Russia, 8U-64, MiG-23, MiG-27, MiG-29 (9-12)
RN-42 Strategic Bomb [200kT Nuclear] — Russia
RUR-5A Mod 3 ASROC RTD [10kT Nuclear DC] — 196x-89
SA-2e Guideline [S-75M Volkhov, 15E / V-760, 25kT Nuclear] — 1965, Soviet Only
SA-2f Guideline Mod 2 [S-75M3 Volkhov, 5V29 / V-760V] — 1976, Nuclear 5YA23 / V-759
SA-5b Gammon [5V28, 25kT Nuclear] — 1972, S-200V Vega
SH-04 Galosh ABM [ABM-1B, Nuclear] — 1972
SH-08 Gazelle ABM [ABM-3 / 53T6, Nuclear] — 1989
SH-11 Gorgon ABM [ABM-3 / 51T6, Nuclear]
SS-11 Sego Mod 1a [UR-100 / RS-10, 1.1mT Nuclear] — 1966, 8K84, Withdrawn by 1974
SS-11 Sego Mod 1b [UR-100UTTH / RS-10, 1.3mT Nuclear] — 1970, 8K84M
SS-11 Sego Mod 2 [UR-100K / RS-10M, 1.3mT Nuclear] — 1971, 15A20
SS-11 Sego Mod 3 [UR-100U / RS-10M, 3 MRV x 350kT Nuclear] — 1974, 15A20U
SS-12a Scaleboard [9M76, 500kT Nuclear] — 1963-1987, 9K76 Temp-S
SS-12b Scaleboard [9M72, 500kT Nuclear] — Not Operational, 9K71 Temp
SS-13 Savage Mod 1 [RS-12, 750kT Nuclear] — 1969-19xx, RT-2 Temp-2
SS-13 Savage Mod 2 [RS-12, 750kT Nuclear] — 1975-1995, RT-2 Temp-2
SS-16 Sinner [RS-14, 1mT Nuclear] — 1979-1985, RT-21 Temp-2S, Experimental Deployment
SS-17 Spanker Mod 1 [MR-UR-100 / RS-16A, 4 MIRV x 750kT Nuclear] — 1976-1991
SS-17 Spanker Mod 2 [MR-UR-100 / RS-16A, 3.5mT Nuclear] — 1976-1991
SS-17 Spanker Mod 3 [MR-UR-100UTTH / RS-16B, 4 MIRV x 750kT Nuclear] — 1981-1996
SS-18 Satan Mod 1 [R-36M / RS-20A, 24mT Nuclear] — 1976-1984
SS-18 Satan Mod 2 [R-36M / RS-20A, 8 MIRV x 1.3mT Nuclear] — 1976-1983
SS-18 Satan Mod 3 [R-36MUTTKh / RS-20B, 24mT Nuclear] — 1980
SS-18 Satan Mod 4 [R-36MUTTKh / RS-20B, 10 MIRV x 550kT Nuclear] — 1980-2010
SS-18 Satan Mod 5 [R-36M2 / RS-20V, 10 MIRV x 750kT Nuclear] — 1989
SS-18 Satan Mod 6 [R-36M2 / RS-20V, 20mT Nuclear] — 1992
SS-19 Stiletto Mod 1 [UR-100N / RS-18A, 6 MIRV x 550kT Nuclear] — 1976-1983
SS-19 Stiletto Mod 2 [UR-100N / RS-18A, 5mT Nuclear] — 1978
SS-19 Stiletto Mod 3 [UR-100NUTTH / RS-18B, 6 MIRV x 750kT Nuclear] — 1980
SS-1c Scud B [8K14-8F14, 70kT Nuclear] — 1962, 9K72 Elbrus
SS-1d Scud C [70kT Nuclear] — Never Operational
SS-21a Scarab [9M79B, 100kT Nuclear] — 9K79 Tochka
SS-21b Scarab [9M79B-1, 100kT Nuclear] — 1990, 9K79-1 Tochka-U
SS-23 Spider [9M714V, 200kT Nuclear] — 1981-1990
SS-24 Scalpel Mod 1 [RS-22, 10 MIRV x 550kT Nuclear] — 1990-2002, Silo
SS-24 Scalpel Mod 2 [RS-22, 10 MIRV x 550kT Nuclear] — 1988-2005, Rail-Based
SS-25 Sickle [RS-12M Topol, 750kT Nuclear] — 1989
SS-27 Sickle B [RS-12M1 Topol-M, 550kT Nuclear] — 1999
SS-29 Sickle B Mod 2 [RS-12M2 Topol-M, 550kT Nuclear]
SS-4 Sandal Mod 1 [R-12, 2.3mT Nuclear] — 1959, 8K63
SS-4 Sandal Mod 2 [R-12U, 2.3mT Nuclear] — 1963, 8K63U
SS-5 Skean Mod 1 [R-14, 2.3mT Nuclear] — 1962, 8K65
SS-5 Skean Mod 2 [R-14U, 2.3mT Nuclear] — 1965, 8K65U
SS-9 Scarp Mod 1 [R-36, 18mT Nuclear] — 1967-1975, 8K67
SS-9 Scarp Mod 2 [R-36, 25mT Nuclear] — 1967-1975, 8K67
SS-9 Scarp Mod 3 FOBS [R-36O, 5mT Nuclear] — 1968-1970, 8K69, Fractional Orbital Bombardment System
SS-9 Scarp Mod 4 [R-36P, 3 MRV x 2mT Nuclear] — 1972-74, 8K67P
SS-N-12 Sandbox Mod 1 [P-500 Bazalt , 350kT Nuclear] — 1976
SS-N-12 Sandbox Mod 2 [P-1000, 350kT Nuclear] — 1988
SS-N-14 Silex [60R, 5kT Nuclear Depth Charge] — 1969
SS-N-15 Starfish [RPK-2 Viyoga, 5kT Nuclear] — 1970, 82R
SS-N-15 Starfish [RPK-6 Vodopad, 5kT Nuclear] — 1982, 83R
SS-N-16 Stallion [RPK-7 Vodopei, 10kT Nuclear] — 1985, 84R
SS-N-17 Snipe [3M17, 500kT Nuclear] — 1980-1991, 1x Yankee SSBN
SS-N-18 Stingray Mod 1 [3 MIRV x 500kT Nuclear] — 1978
SS-N-18 Stingray Mod 2 [450kT Nuclear]
SS-N-18 Stingray Mod 3 [7 MIRV x 200kT Nuclear]
SS-N-19 Shipwreck [P-700 Granit, 200kT Nuclear] — 1984
SS-N-20 Sturgeon [10 MIRV x 200kT Nuclear]
SS-N-21a Sampson [S-10 Granat, 200kT Nuclear]
SS-N-21b Sampson [S-10 Granat, 200kT Nuclear]
SS-N-22 Sunburn [P-80 Zubr, 200kT Nuclear] — 3M80
SS-N-23 Skiff [4 MIRV x 100kT Nuclear] — 1986
SS-N-32 [6 MIRV x 150kT Nuclear]
SS-N-3a Shaddock [P-6, ASM, 350kT Nuclear] — 1965
SS-N-3b Shaddock [P-5D, AGM, 350kT Nuclear] — 1962-1966
SS-N-3c Shaddock [P-35 Progress, ASM, 350kT Nuclear]
SS-N-5 Sark [800kT Nuclear] — 1964-1988
SS-N-6 Serb Mod 1 [1mT Nuclear, R-27 Serb] — 1969, 4K10
SS-N-6 Serb Mod 2 [1mT Nuclear, R-27U Serb]
SS-N-6 Serb Mod 3 [3 MRV x 200kT Nuclear]
SS-N-7 Starbright [P-70 Ametist, 200kT Nuclear]
SS-N-8 Sawfly Mod 1 [1mT Nuclear] — 1974
SS-N-8 Sawfly Mod 2 [800kT Nuclear]
SS-N-9 Siren [P-120 Malakhit, 200kT Nuclear]
T-20 Strategic Bomb [20mT Nuclear]
T-5 Strategic Bomb [5mT Nuclear]
T-50 Strategic Bomb [50mT Nuclear]
Tactical Bomb [8U69, 5kT Nuclear] — Russia, Izdelie 244N, First Tactical Bomb, Su-7B, MiG-21
UGM-109A Tomahawk TLAM-N [W80-0 200kT Nuclear] — 1985-1991, TT
UGM-109A Tomahawk TLAM-N [W80-0 200kT Nuclear] — 1985-1991, VLS
UGM-133 Trident II D5 [4 MIRV x W88 475kT Nuclear]
UGM-133 Trident II D5 [8 MIRV x W76 100kT Nuclear] — 1991
UGM-27C Polaris A3 [3 MRV x W58 200kT Nuclear] — 1965-1996
UGM-73A Poseidon C3 [10 MIRV x W76 100kT Nuclear] — 1972-1993
UGM-96A Trident C-4 [8 MIRV x W76 100kT Nuclear] — 1980-2005
UUM-44A SUBROC [10kT Nuclear DC] — 1966-1989
WE.177 Type A Depth Charge [15kT Nuclear] — 1966-1998, Aerial
WE.177 Type B [400kT Nuclear] — 1966-1995
WE.177 Type C [300kT Nuclear] — 1973-1998


What battleships are included in the database?

The battleships included in the 1946-1979 database are as follows:

BB 43 Tennessee — United States (Navy), 1947-1959, In Reserve
BB 44 California — United States (Navy), 1947-1959, In Reserve
BB 45 Colorado — United States (Navy), 1947-1959, In Reserve
BB 46 Maryland — United States (Navy), 1947-1959, In Reserve
BB 47 West Virginia — United States (Navy), 1947-1959, In Reserve
BB 55 North Carolina — United States (Navy), 1947-1961, In Reserve
BB 56 Washington — United States (Navy), 1947-1960, In Reserve
BB 57 South Dakota — United States (Navy), 1947-1962, In Reserve
BB 58 Indiana — United States (Navy), 1947-1962, In Reserve
BB 59 Massachusetts — United States (Navy), 1947-1962, In Reserve
BB 60 Alabama — United States (Navy), 1947-1962, In Reserve
BB 61 Iowa — United States (Navy), 1944-1950
BB 61 Iowa — United States (Navy), 1953-1958
BB 61 Iowa — United States (Navy), 1966
BB 62 New Jersey — United States (Navy), 1943-1950
BB 62 New Jersey — United States (Navy), 1953-1957
BB 62 New Jersey — United States (Navy), 1967-1969
BB 63 Missouri — United States (Navy), 1944-1955
BB 64 Wisconsin — United States (Navy), 1944-1953
BB 64 Wisconsin — United States (Navy), 1953-1958
BB 67 Montana — United States (Navy), 1953-1958
BB Almirante Latorre — Chile (Navy), 1942-1959, -Last Refit
BB Anson — United Kingdom (Royal Navy), 1942-1951
BB Anson — United Kingdom (Royal Navy), 1951-1955, -Reserve, scrapped 1957
BB Duke of York — United Kingdom (Royal Navy), 1941-1949
BB Duke of York — United Kingdom (Royal Navy), 1950-1955, -Reserve, scrapped 1957
BB Gangut — Soviet Union [-1991] (Naval Fleet [V-MF]), 1911-1956
BB Howe — United Kingdom (Royal Navy), 1942-1951
BB Howe — United Kingdom (Royal Navy), 1951-1957, -Reserve, scrapped 1958
BB Jean Bart — France (Navy), 1949-1953
BB Jean Bart — France (Navy), 1953-1961
BB King George V — United Kingdom (Royal Navy), 1940-1949
BB King George V — United Kingdom (Royal Navy), 1950-1955, -Reserve, scrapped 1957
BB Oktoberskaya Revolutsia — Soviet Union [-1991] (Naval Fleet [V-MF]), 1951, Cancelled Project
BB Richelieu — France (Navy), 1949-1960
BB Vanguard — United Kingdom (Royal Navy), 1946-1960
BB Vanguard — United Kingdom (Royal Navy), 1962, Proposed Refit
BB Vanguard — United Kingdom (Royal Navy), 1975, Proposed Refit
KR Kronshtadt — Soviet Union [-1991] (Naval Fleet [V-MF]), 1949
KR Stalingrad — Soviet Union [-1991] (Naval Fleet [V-MF]), 1956
RKR Stalingrad (SS-N-2) — Soviet Union [-1991] (Naval Fleet [V-MF]), 1961, Cancelled Project
RKR Stalingrad (SS-N-3) — Soviet Union [-1991] (Naval Fleet [V-MF]), 1963, Cancelled Project

1980-2015+ database:

BB 61 Iowa — United States (Navy), 1983
BB 61 Iowa — United States (Navy), 1987
BB 61 Iowa — United States (Navy), 1989
BB 61 Iowa — United States (Navy), 1990-1990
BB 62 New Jersey — United States (Navy), 1983
BB 62 New Jersey — United States (Navy), 1987
BB 62 New Jersey — United States (Navy), 1989
BB 62 New Jersey — United States (Navy), 1991-1991
BB 63 Missouri — United States (Navy), 1987
BB 63 Missouri — United States (Navy), 1989
BB 63 Missouri — United States (Navy), 1991-1992
BB 64 Wisconsin — United States (Navy), 1989
BB 64 Wisconsin — United States (Navy), 1991-1991
RKR Admiral Lazarev [Pr.1144 Orlan, Ex-Frunze] — Russia [1992-] (Navy), 1992-1994
RKR Admiral Nakhimov [Pr.1144 Orlan, Ex-Kalinin] — Russia [1992-] (Navy), 1992-1999
RKR Admiral Nakhimov [Pr.1144 Orlan, Ex-Kalinin] — Russia [1992-] (Navy), 2006
RKR Frunze [Pr.1144 Orlan] — Soviet Union [-1991] (Naval Fleet [V-MF]), 1985-1991, Admiral Lazarev
RKR Kalinin [Pr.1144 Orlan] — Soviet Union [-1991] (Naval Fleet [V-MF]), 1989-1991, Admiral Nakhimov
RKR Kirov [Pr.1144 Orlan] — Soviet Union [-1991] (Naval Fleet [V-MF]), 1980, Admiral Ushakov
RKR Kirov [Pr.1144 Orlan] — Soviet Union [-1991] (Naval Fleet [V-MF]), 1984-1991, Admiral Ushakov
RKR Petr Velikiy [Pr.1144 Orlan, Ex-Yuri Androvo] — Russia [1992-] (Navy), 1999 Fighting Falcon with AIM-9X Sidewinder (HOB) but no HMD can shoot up to 60 deg. And a Su-27 Flanker with AA-11 Archer [R-73] or F-15I Eagle with Python 4 (HOB + HMD) can go all the way to 90 deg.